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Cargo liquefaction


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Cargo liquefaction

  1. 1. CARGO LIQUEFACTION AND DANGEROUS OF SHIP Tanzer SATIR, Tugsan ISIACIK COLAK Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Maritime, Tuzla 34940, Turkey,
  2. 2. INDEX 1-IMSBC CODE and Solid Bulk Cargo 2-IMSBC Category and An Example from IMSBC 3-Cargo Liquefaction and Liquefaction Process 4-Reasons for Cargo Liquefaction 5-Accidents and Total Loss due to Cargo Liquefaction 6-Transportable Moisture limit (TML) and Flow Moisture Point 7-Tests for Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) 8-Shipper and Master Responsibilites 9-Conclusion
  3. 3. 1-What is IMSBC CODE and Solid Bulk Cargo ? • The main legislation governing safe carriage of solid bulk cargoes is ; International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code, which became mandatory on January 1, 2011, under the SOLAS Convention. • IMSBC Code defines solid bulk cargo; any material, other than liquid or gas, consisting of a combination of particles, granules or larger pieces of material, generally uniform in composition, which is loaded directly into the cargo spaces of a ship without any intermediate form of containment [1].
  4. 4. 2-IMSBC Definitons The IMSBC Code categorizes solid bulk cargoes into three groups according to their risks and danger: • Group A – cargoes which may liquefy if shipped at a moisture content exceeding their Transportable Moisture Limit (TML). • Group B – cargoes which possess a chemical hazard which could give rise to a dangerous situation on a ship. • Group C – cargoes which are neither liable to liquefy (Group A) nor possess chemical hazards (Group B). Cargoes in this group can still be hazardous. These presentation is about Cargo liquefaction.(2)
  5. 5. An Example from IMSBC Code Source: IMSBC Code 2012 Edition, IMO, Appendix 4, compiled Ref: Sampling and testing iron ore fines, UK P&I Club
  6. 6. 3-Cargo Liquefaction & Liquefaction Process • The general definition of liquefaction is the process of converting a substance from its solid or gas state into its liquid state. In more scientific terms, in its solid state the particles of a concentrate are held together by friction [3]. • Shortly, Under extreme circumstances the solid behaves as a liquid = Liquefaction Ref: Liquefaction of solid bulk cargoes Gard Academy Summer Seminar, 2012
  7. 7. … • Certain cargoes, particularly nickel ore and iron ore fines, first they look dry and their characteristics are solid during loading to the ship. But during voyage, concentrate cargo like nickel ore or iron ore are exposed to agitation under certain conditions like ship’s rolling, wave impact and engine vibration and resulted as compaction of cargo [4]. Water pressure on particles causing them to be separated Ref: Liquefaction of solid bulk cargoes Gard Academy Summer Seminar, 2012
  8. 8. … • Due to sufficient moisture in the cargo, external agitation can increase water pressure inherent within the concentrate, pushing particles apart. The material suddenly starts to transition, friction is lost and the cargo begins to behave like a liquid resulted with free surface effect and creates sudden and major stability problems for the vessel [3]. Ref: The Nautical Institute Seminar on Cargo liquefaction- Hazards and developments London, 2012
  9. 9. • The cargo starts to shift in one direction with the ship’s rolling and does not return to the center. Further rolling of cargo causes listing. This situation may generate loss of ship stability and potentially capsizing [5]. Ref: Iron Ore Fines Risk Of Carriage By Sea
  10. 10. 4-Reasons For Cargo Liquefaction • The main reason of cargo liquefaction start with most mines locations are very far from loading /port facilities. • Very rudimentary and limited loading equipment and methods take time to load the cargo on board. • Cargo is stock-piled, uncovered, on the beach. During rain and monsoon causes the cargo wet and moisture levels in the cargo increase but this could not be seen visibly [6]. • Due to remoteness of the mines, it is hard for independent surveyors/experts to take samples of the cargo to be loaded [7].
  11. 11. Ref: Cargo liquefaction –Regulatory development- Nicky Pappadakis Intercargo, 2012
  12. 12. 5-Accidents and Total Loss due to Cargo Liquefaction • There have been a series of total losses and near misses caused by cargo liquefaction. This may result in serious stability problems as loss of lives and total loses of ship. • Liquefaction which reduces ship’s positive stability and metacentric height (GM) may cause possible loss of the ship [8].
  13. 13. Accidents Vinalis Queen, 2011 , 22 crew lost, Nickel Ore, from Indonesia Jian Fu Star”, “Nasco Diamond”, “Hong Wei”, Oct/Nov 2010 Ref: Liquefaction of solid bulk cargoes Gard Academy Summer Seminar, 2012
  14. 14. M/V Vinalis Queen, 25-12-2011 Prior to the casualty, last contact with the vessel was whilst on a voyage from Indonesia to China loaded with a cargo of nickel ore and all but one of the 23 crew were lost. The ship was carrying more than 54,000 tons of nickel ore [9]. Ref: Russel M., Liquefaction of Solid Bulk Cargoes, Gard Academy Summer Seminar, 2012
  15. 15. 6-Transportable Moisture limit (TML) and Flow Moisture Point • According to Appendix 3.2.1 of the IMSBC Code “Many fine-particled cargoes if possessing a sufficiently high moisture content are liable to flow. Thus any damp or wet cargo containing a proportion of fine particles should be tested for flow characteristics prior to loading • According to IMSBC Code definition, transportable moisture limit (TML) of a cargo which may liquefy means the maximum moisture content of the cargo which is considered safe for carriage in ships. Transportable moisture limit is determined by the test procedures, approved by a competent authority . • The definition of flow moisture point is the maximum water content, expressed as a percentage, at which a sample of cargo will begin to lose shear strength. If the moisture content of the cargo beyond flow moisture point may liquefy [10].
  16. 16. … • The most important subject for the ship operators and master is actual TML value determined by laboratory. • SOLAS requires that the average moisture content of a Group A cargo in any cargo space must not be higher than the TML [10]. • To find the TML with using the Flow Table Test, FMP should be determined by laboratory. • Loading a cargo above, at or near its FMP (flow moisture point) represents an unacceptably high risk for vessels. The cargo is safe to load when moisture content of the cargo sampled is below the TML [10].
  17. 17. Tests for Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) The IMSBC Code suggests three tests available to determine TML: • Flow Table test: Scope: IMSBC Code recommends this methodology for “mineral concentrates … with a maximum grain size of 1 mm” recognizing that it “may be applicable for … grain size up to 7 mm”, but “will not be suitable for materials coarser than this”. • Penetration test: Scope: IMSBC Code recommends this methodology for “mineral concentrates and similar materials up to 25 mm …”. • Proctor / Fagerberg test: Scope: IMSBC Code recommends this methodology for “ore concentrates or similar materials up to a top-size of 5 mm” recognizing that for application “to coarser materials with a top-size greater than 5 mm … an extensive investigation for adoption and improvment is required [11].
  18. 18. Flow Table Test Ref: Iron Ore Fines Risk Of Carriage By Sea
  19. 19. Relation between FMP and TML When FMP is determined the Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) can be calculated. TML (%) = FMP (%) x 0.9 Ref: Iron Ore Fines Risk Of Carriage By Sea
  20. 20. Can Test Rule of thumb -Fill a can with a sample of cargo. Strike the can firmly on a hard surface 25 times. If free moisture is evident on the surface of the material then it is above its flow point [12]. The can test is not to be taken as an acceptance test confirming that the cargo is safe. It should serve to warn the master or confirm that the cargo is above its flow moisture point and that further laboratory testing is needed. Ref: Bulk Cargo Liquefaction, Loss Prevention Briefing for North Members,2012
  21. 21. 7-Shipper and Master Responsibilites • According to IMSBC Code, Regulation 4; the shipper has to provide the master or his representative with appropriate information about the cargo. • Adequate and appropriate information should be provided by shipper in advance. • By providing this information, ship will be able to take necessary precautions for proper stowage and safe carriage of the cargo on board. • This information should be presented prior to loading to the Master and confirmed by officially prepared documents [13].
  22. 22. … • The master should ensure that moisture content of the cargo is not more than TML. • As per the IMSBC Code, a certificate of moisture content must be declared by the shipper to the master. • Masters and officers should check and inspect the cargo moisture content visually before commence of loading possible undertake a visual inspection of the cargo before loading. If Master believes in the necessity, additional testing should be done to determine moisture content [5]. • If there is any doubt about the validity of the signed certificate of average moisture content, or the cargo moisture content is excessively high moisture, the master should stop or refuse to load the cargo until Master is sure that the cargo is safe for carriage.
  23. 23. 8-CONCLUSION • Due to improper loading of solid bulk cargoes, cargo liquefaction effects and insufficient communication between the shipper and master and disqualified master and his crew are resulting number of accidents. • Master always monitors the weather condition before loading commence for iron ore, nickel ore and other concentrates cargo. • The master should not be forget he has an overriding authority under SOLAS. If he is not sure for the safe of cargo, he should refuse and stop loading if any risks exists. • SOLAS and IMDG Code have very strict rules for avoiding cargo liquefaction. The transportable moisture limit that IMSBC Code suggest must be done before the cargo loading commences and it should be certificated by an appropriate laboratory. • Familiarity of IMSBC Code and SOLAS regulations should be enhanced by bulk carrier crew. Qualified and experienced ship crew is essential for solid bulk carriers to prevent loss of lives and total loses of ship.
  24. 24. REFERENCE • 1. Adoption of The International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code, Annex 3 Resolution MSC.268(85), 2008 • 2.$FILE/IMS BC%20Code.pdf, accessed at 04.03.2014 • 3. Liquefaction and Bulk Carrier Total Losses: Key Issues An information paper Joint Hull Committee liquefaction, JH2012/003, UK • 4.Liquefaction of unprocessed mineral ores -Iron ore fines and nickel ore By Dr Martin Jonas, Brookes Bell, Liverpool. Gard News 197, February/April 2010. • 5.Standard Cargo February Bulk Cargo Liquefaction (Iron Ore Fines and Nickel Ore), 2011, UK • 6.Indonesia and the Philippines – Safe Carriage of Nickel Ore Cargoes London P&I Club, Circular No. 23/2010, Norway. • 7.Indonesia and the Philippines – Safe Carriage of Nickel Ore Cargoes, Gard The Britannia Steam Ship Insurance Association 2011, UK
  25. 25. • 8.Standard Cargo, Bulk Cargo Liquefaction (Iron Ore Fines and Nickel Ore, published by Charles Taylor & Co. Limited, 2011. • 9. • 10. Bulk Cargo Liquefaction, Loss prevention briefing Loss Prevention Briefing for North Members Cargo, April 2012, North of England P&I Association, 2012 • 11.M. Ahmed, The Nautical Institute Seminar on Cargo liquefaction- Hazards and developments London, ppt, 2012 • 12.Bulk Cargo Liquefaction, Loss Prevention Briefing for North Members,2012 • 13.FSA Study on Bulk Carrier Safety Conducted By Japan, MSC. 75/5/2 Annex 1
  26. 26. • Any Question????