Understanding The Modern Urban Environment


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Understanding The Modern Urban Environment

  1. 1. Understanding the modern urban environment
  2. 2. Urban environment Counter urbanisation 5 Rural – urban fringe 13 Comprehensive redevelopment 4 Green belt 7 Out of town shopping centre 11 Twilight zone 18 suburbs 17 migration 10 CBD 1 Housing renovation 8 Slum clearance 15 urbanisation 19 Urban sprawl 16 Shopping centre 14 gentrification 6 Urban morphology 20 Inner city 9 commuter 2 Retail park 12 Commuter village 3
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>1. Corner shop – 19th C terraced housing areas (Open all hours) which sold low order convenience goods, people walk to shop daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Shopping Parades – found in suburban housing areas. Low order convenience goods, shops used on a daily basis - Dorridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. City Centre areas – high –order, travel by public transport, visits once per week or less, part of CBD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Along main roads leading out of city centres – low order, serve passing trade where drivers park their cars outside and make rapid purchase. </li></ul></ul>What are the traditional four main shopping locations?
  4. 4. 2. What are the reasons for supermarket location at a. edge of CBD? b. edge of urban area? <ul><li>Edge of CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Cleared land at edge of CBD. This is in twilight zone and was 19th century factories and terraced housing which was demolished to provide a large flat site for single storey shop and car park. </li></ul><ul><li>Close to public transport and densely populated areas </li></ul><ul><li>b. Edge of urban area </li></ul><ul><li>retail parks contain several large stores often with DIT outlet, large electrical shops and furniture outlets with large free carparking spaces. Often have fast food outlet. Many also have entertainment facilities such as cinema or bowling alley. </li></ul><ul><li>Large flat site </li></ul><ul><li>Good accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper land </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are advantages of Regional shopping centres? <ul><li>Accessible - good access to motorways – shoppers and deliveries </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively close to suburban areas to find employees </li></ul><ul><li>Large areas of cleared land, cheaper than in CBD – space for shopping area and car parking </li></ul><ul><li>Merry Hill </li></ul>
  6. 6. Location Accessed from M60 – ringing Manchester, links to M62,M6, M56 – so it is easily reached from Leeds, Liverpool and Chester Close to suburban area of Urmston for workers Large area of cleared land on the edge of Trafford Park industrial Estate – space for shopping and car parking Short distance to M60 means foods can be delivered quickly from warehouses – along M6 and M62
  7. 7. ‘The Trafford Centre is one of the most exciting shopping and leisure destinations in Britain with stunning architecture, themed streets, 280 stores and 35 restaurants. It is also home to a 20-screen cinema and a bowling alley. Daily entertainment and a children's wonder world mean there's something to suit all the family ‘
  8. 8. Case study – Trafford Centre http://www.traffordcentre.co.uk / <ul><li>Advantages to shoppers: </li></ul><ul><li>Free parking, own bus station </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities for disabled </li></ul><ul><li>280 shops and 35 cafes – national chain stores, high order goods </li></ul><ul><li>market feel – street barrows selling a variety of goods </li></ul><ul><li>crèche </li></ul><ul><li>cafes stay open late </li></ul><ul><li>20 screen cinema </li></ul><ul><li>pleasant environment – wide, tree lined, air conditioned malls </li></ul><ul><li>long opening hours </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why have these changes in retail location occurred? <ul><li>1. Expansion of car ownership which means </li></ul><ul><li>that people can buy in bulk </li></ul><ul><li>park close to shopping outlet – large cheap sites </li></ul><ul><li>drive quickly to the stores – accessible sites – motorway junctions or at edge of residential areas </li></ul><ul><li>2. Change in lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>workers want to purchase food for a week under one roof – supermarkets </li></ul><ul><li>want to shop at weekends and in evenings – so need for longer opening times </li></ul><ul><li>shopping is seen as a ‘leisure activity’ so centres which combine purchasing, cafes and entertainment are popular </li></ul><ul><li>3. Retailers want to encourage custom whilst keeping costs low </li></ul><ul><li>out of town locations where land is cheaper and does not need clearing </li></ul><ul><li>motorway junctions where customers can be attracted from a wider area. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How have these changes affected the traditional retailing pattern? <ul><li>Corner shops closed, Some have joined co-operatives like Spar to reduce overheads, act as off licences, video shops or newsagents </li></ul><ul><li>Closure of bakers and grocers </li></ul><ul><li>High streets and city centres have been affected by the development of out of town shopping areas – retail outlets have closed on fringe of CBD as customers find it more convenient to travel by car to edge of urban area. </li></ul><ul><li>City centres are fighting back- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrianised shopping centres with trees and cafes – segregates shoppers and traffic, more pleasant environment – New Street, Pallisades, Pavillions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced parking fees for late night and Sunday opening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undercover shopping malls – Bullring Shopping Centre </li></ul></ul></ul>