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The Effect Of Road Transport On Urban Structure


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The Effect Of Road Transport On Urban Structure

  1. 1. The effect of Road Transport on Urban structure Syllabus: The impact of the increased use of road transport on urban structure and environment. Possible solutions to the problems of traffic in towns.
  2. 2. Increase use of private car since 1960s <ul><li>Affluence </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping – and growth of out of town shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Commuting </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralisation of work from inner cities to rural urban fringe </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience and safety </li></ul><ul><li>People have greater mobility, freedom of movement and more choice in where they live, work, shop, educated, leisure. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Increase use of lorries <ul><li>More flexible than railways and canals </li></ul><ul><li>Speed and convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to service industries in out of town sites </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for new industrial production methods – (just in time methods) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Effect of increases on urban structure: <ul><ul><li>1. With increased use of private cars and road transport for industry, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cities have expanded into the rural urban fringe with the development of housing and retail estates – Blythe Valley, Dickens Heath </li></ul><ul><li>Grown along transport routes </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to urban sprawl and even the formation of conurbations </li></ul><ul><li>2. To enable vehicles to avoid the town centre and to reach these new developments in some centres an outer ring road has been built </li></ul><ul><li>Motorway junctions are important for industrial and retail development as they provide access for vehicles from a number of directions. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve road access in the centre of some cities an inner ring road is built - Coventry </li></ul><ul><li>3. The attraction of the rural-urban fringe due to increased use of road transport has speeded the decline of the city centre retailing and inner city industry and housing. This has led to redevelopment in the CBD (Bullring) and renewal in the inner city areas (Highgate ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the problems of traffic in towns? <ul><li>Death and injury </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution occurs at major road junctions - </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma and allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Smogs - during high pressure conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Acid rain from the release of sulphur dioxide from exhausts </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect from release of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Noise pollution occurs along the major routeways into the town from the high number of cars, lorries and buses. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of land and Habitats to build houses, widen roads and make car parks </li></ul><ul><li>Visual pollution Car parks can detract from the appearance of city centres, whilst motorways can scar the countryside </li></ul>
  6. 6. How can traffic problems in towns be solved? <ul><li>Reduce the amount of traffic entering the urban area to reduce congestion and air pollution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By creating pedestrianised areas, pedestrian precincts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Park and ride schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One – way streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion Charges to keep non essential vehicles out of central areas e.g. London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toll roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner and outer ring roads / motorways, bypasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban clearways to stop main routes being blocked by parked cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic calming and lower speed limits in residential areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle routes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Encouraging people to use public transport so that there will be fewer cars on the road and less need to build extra roads and car parks : <ul><ul><li>Running a reliable and frequent bus service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering reductions in fares – season tickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing bus only lanes so that public transport is faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installing new rapid-transport systems – Tyneside Metro, Sheffield Supertram, Metrolink Manchester </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Reducing air pollution from vehicle exhausts by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcing the law on vehicle emissions – catalytic converters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using traffic control methods e.g. computer controlled traffic lights to reduce congestion at busy junctions </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The problem with some solutions is that whilst people are concerned about the effects of transport on the environment – they still wish to travel as safely, quickly and cheaply as possible. Future plans must be sustainable – they should improve people’s mobility without damaging the environment in which they live </li></ul>