RESTLESS EARTH DETAILS R A G
The Earth’s crust is unstable, Distribution of plates; contrasts between continental and oceanic
especially at plate margins. plates. Destructive, constructive and conservative plate margins.
Unique landforms occur at plate Location and formation of fold mountains, ocean trenches,
margins. composite volcanoes and shield volcanoes.
People use these landforms as a A case study of one range of fold mountains. The ways in which
resource and adapt to the they are used – farming, Hydro Electric Power, mining, tourism and
conditions within them. how people adapt to limited communications, steep relief, poor
Volcanoes are hazards resulting Characteristics of different types of volcanoes. A case study of a
from tectonic activity. Their volcanic eruption – its cause; primary and secondary effects;
primary and secondary effects positive and negative impacts; immediate and long term responses.
are positive as well as negative. Monitoring and predicting volcanic eruptions.
Responses change in the
aftermath of an eruption.
Supervolcanoes are on a much The characteristics of a supervolcano and the
bigger scale than other volcanoes likely effects of an eruption.
and an eruption would have global
Earthquakes occur at Location and cause of earthquakes. Features of earthquakes –
constructive, destructive and epicentre, focus, shock waves and the measurement of earthquakes
conservative plate margins. using the Richter and Mercalli Scales.
The effects of earthquakes and A case study of an earthquake in a rich part of the world and one
responses to them differ due to from a poorer area – their specific causes; primary and secondary
contrasts in levels of wealth. effects; immediate and long term responses – the need to predict,
protect and prepare. Contrasts in effects and responses will be
Tsunamis are a specific secondary A case study of a tsunami – its cause, effects and responses.
effect and can have devastating
effects in coastal areas.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
The characteristics of the UK The characteristics of the UK climate – monthly temperatures,
climate can be explained by its precipitation, sunshine hours. Reasons for the climate and
global position. variations within the UK with reference to latitude, altitude,
pressure, winds and distance from the sea.
Depressions and anticyclones have The sequence of weather associated with the passage of a
an important and contrasting depression and the reasons for it. The weather that accompanies
influence on UK weather. an anticyclone. Summer and winter contrasts and reasons for
UK weather is becoming more Evidence that weather is becoming more extreme. Weather events
extreme. This has an impact on from the last 10 years – a consideration of evidence that
human activity which may be weather is becoming more extreme. The impact of this on people’s
positive or negative. homes and lives, agriculture, health, transport – benefits and
costs and issues raised – need for adequate warning, preparation,
plans to deal with impacts.
There is a debate about the The evidence for and against global climate change. The possible
evidence for and causes of global causes of global warming. World and UK temperatures for the
climate change. last 100 and 1000 years.
The consequences of global Economic, social, environmental and political consequences of global
climate change will be significant climate change for the world and the UK.
and change the way we live.
There must be an Responses to the threat of global climate change: global response,
international/national/ reducing carbon emission; the Kyoto Protocol, carbon credits.
local, united response to the Local responses: transport strategies, taxation, congestion
threat of global climate change. charging, conserving energy, recycling.
Tropical revolving storms are a Cause of tropical revolving storms (hurricanes/
major climatic hazard. The typhoons/cyclones/willy willies) – the sequence of events leading to
effects of and responses to their formation. The structure and characteristics of a hurricane.
tropical revolving storms vary A case study of such storms in a rich part of the world and one
between areas of contrasting from a poorer area. Social, economic and environmental effects and
levels of wealth. short and long term responses (monitoring, prediction, protection
WATER ON THE LAND
The shape of river valleys Processes of erosion – hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition,
changes as rivers flow solution; vertical and lateral erosion. Processes of transportation –
downstream due to the traction, saltation, suspension and solution. Deposition and reasons
dominance of different processes. for it. Long profile and changing
Distinctive landforms result from Landforms resulting from erosion – waterfalls and gorges;
different processes as rivers flow landforms resulting from erosion and deposition – meanders and
downstream. ox-bow lakes; landforms resulting from deposition – levees and
The amount of water in a river Factors affecting discharge – amount and type of rainfall,
fluctuates due to a number of temperature, previous weather conditions, relief, rock type
reasons. (impermeable, permeable, porous and pervious) and land use.
Rivers flood due to a number of The causes of flooding: physical – prolonged rain, heavy rain,
physical and human causes. snowmelt, relief; and human – deforestation, building construction.
Flooding appears to be an The frequency and location of flood events – in
increasingly frequent event. the UK in the last 20 years.
The effects of and responses to A case study of flooding in a rich part of the world and one from a
floods vary between areas of poorer area – the different effects of and responses to flooding.
contrasting levels of
There is discussion about the Hard engineering strategies – dams and reservoirs, straightening.
costs and benefits of hard and Soft engineering – flood warnings, preparation, flood plain zoning,
soft engineering and debate about ‘do nothing’. The costs and
which is the better option. benefits of these.
Rivers are managed to provide a The UK – increasing demand for water; areas of deficit and areas
water supply. There are a variety of surplus; the need for transfer. A case study of a dam/reservoir
of issues resulting from this. to consider resulting economic, social and
environmental issues and the need for sustainable supplies.
ICE ON THE LAND
The amount of ice on a global and The last Ice Age (Pleistocene) – time scale and extent of maximum
continental level has changed in ice cover in the northern hemisphere. Present extent of ice cover.
the past. Contrasts and evidence of changes – global temperatures.
The amount of ice depends on the Glacial budget: accumulation and ablation, advance and retreat.
glacial budget. This has seen a Case study of a glacier – recent retreat since nineteenth century:
loss since 1950 and there are causes and evidence. Seasonal shifts in temperature and glaciers.
seasonal changes due to
fluctuations in temperature.
Ice is a powerful force in shaping Freeze thaw weathering. Processes of erosion – abrasion and
the land as a result of weathering, plucking. Processes of movement and transportation – rotational
erosion, slip and bulldozing. Deposition and the reasons for it.
transportation and deposition.
Distinctive landforms result from Landforms resulting from erosion – characteristics and formation
different processes. of corries, arêtes, pyramidal peaks,
truncated spurs, glacial troughs, ribbon lakes and
hanging valleys. Landforms resulting from transportation and
deposition – drumlins, lateral, medial, ground
and terminal moraine.
Landscapes that are actively Case study of an Alpine area for winter sports and an area for
affected by snow and ice attract sightseeing of glaciers – the attractions for tourists; economic,
tourists. This leads social and environmental impact. The need for management and the
to conflict and issues over the use management strategies used and their
of such areas. level of success. Avalanche hazards.
Glacial retreat can pose a threat The impact of retreat and unreliability of snowfall in some resorts.
to the economies of areas relying The economic, social and environmental impact – including the
on tourism and concept of fragile environments.
result in damage to fragile
THE COASTAL ZONE
The coast is shaped by Weathering processes – mechanical,
weathering, mass chemical. Mass movement – sliding and
movement, erosion, transportation slumping. Constructive and destructive waves.
and Processes of erosion – hydraulic power,
deposition. abrasion, attrition and solution. Processes
of transportation – longshore drift, traction,
saltation, suspension and solution. Deposition
and the reasons for it.
Distinctive landforms result from Landforms resulting from erosion –
different characteristics and formation of headlands
processes. and bays, cliffs and wave cut platforms, caves,
arches and stacks.
Landforms resulting from deposition –
characteristics and formation of beaches, spits
Rising sea level will have Rising sea level will have important
important consequences for people living in the
consequences for people living in coastal zone.
Coastal erosion can lead to cliff A case study of an area of recent or threatened cliff collapse –
collapse. This causes problems for rates of coastal erosion; reasons why some areas are susceptible to
people and the undercutting by the sea and collapse; how
environment. people may worsen the situation; the impact on people’s lives and
There is discussion about how the Management strategies:
coast should be managed. There is Hard engineering – sea walls, groynes, rock
debate about the costs and armour. Soft engineering – beach nourishment, dune
benefits of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ regeneration and marsh creation. Managed retreat. A case study of
engineering. coastal management to assess the costs and benefits of strategies
Coastal areas provide a unique A case study of a coastal habitat – its environmental
environment and habitat. There is characteristics; the resulting habitat and species that inhabit it
a need for conservation and this and reasons why. Strategies to ensure the environment is
leads to conflict with other land conserved, but also allow sustainable use of the area.
AQA A case studies – Physical paper
Syllabus Topic Case study
Restless earth Volcano MEDC Mt St Helens
Fold mountains Alps, Andes
Earthquake Sichuan, Kashmir
Tsunami Asian Tsunami
Rivers Flooding MEDC Boscastle
Flooding LEDC Bangladesh
Dam / Reservoir Kielder
Glaciation Winter sports and Alps
Coasts Political, economic,
social costs of coastal
Recent Cliff collapse Yorkshire
Coastal management Happisburgh
Weather and Tropical storms – Hurricane Katrina
Tropical storms – LEDC Cyclone Nargis