Nuclear Power Stations In Britain

14,084 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
14,084
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,098
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nuclear Power Stations In Britain

  1. 1. Nuclear power stations in Britain Objectives Understand the reasons for location and distribution in UK Know the advantages and disadvantages of this form of energy Be able to give details of a nuclear power station case study
  2. 2. A nuclear reaction takes place, a large amount of heat is given off. This all happens within the reactor core. This heats the water around the core and then the water turns to steam. The steam then travels through pipes and causes the turbine to spin. This spinning of the turbine spins a large generator, creating electricity. The steam then is cooled by cold water coming from the cooling tower travelling into the condenser below the turbine. This drops the temperature causing it to turn back into water. This water is then pumped back to the reactor to be reheated and continue the process again. http://www.freeinfosociety.com/site.php?postnum=3115
  3. 3. <ul><li>Nuclear power stations are mainly located… </li></ul><ul><li>In coastal locations </li></ul><ul><li>cast amounts of cooling water can be extracted from the sea and returned when it has been used </li></ul><ul><li>Where the geology provides firm foundations </li></ul><ul><li>reduces the risk of earth movements damaging the reactor and supports the weight of the reactor </li></ul><ul><li>Where there is a large amount of low value flat land or where land is easily reclaimed </li></ul><ul><li>reduces costs </li></ul><ul><li>Away from major centres of population </li></ul><ul><li>the public perceives the risk of leaks or accidents to be less and so there is less opposition to the building of power stations </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The UK relies on atomic energy for nearly 20% of its electricity </li></ul><ul><li>No reactors have been built since the 1980s, due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concerns about accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spiralling decommissioning costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the problem of nuclear waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government has renewed its support for nuclear power because of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soaring oil and gas prices, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dwindling fossil fuel reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure to tackle climate change, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government believes that nuclear power provides the necessary security of supply while helping reduce carbon emissions. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Case study – Heysham, Lancashire <ul><li>Nearest large settlement is Morecambe so opposition was not very strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs a large area of low value land. The site was undeveloped and so therefore cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Geology must provide firm foundations to reduce the risk of earth movements damaging the reactor. The underlying rock is firm sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>The power station needs a coastal location where it can extract cooling water and later return it. Heysham is on Morecambe Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>The west coast rail route is close to the power station so uranium can be transported easily to Heysham and spent fuel rods can be transported to Sellafield for storage or reprocessing </li></ul>
  6. 8. Environmental concerns: <ul><li>Risks of radioactive material polluting the environment are reduced by: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring discharges to ensure that they remain within authorised limits </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting fuel rods in flasks made of tough forged steel </li></ul>
  7. 9. Exam questions… <ul><li>2005 Q6 a </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) Give two reasons why there may have been opposition to the building of the </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear power station. (2 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Q5a H (i) Give two advantages of using nuclear power to generate electricity (2 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>5a H (ii) Give one disadvantage of using nuclear power to generate electricity (1 mark) </li></ul><ul><li>5A F Name one nuclear power station in the UK (1 mark) </li></ul><ul><li>5a H&F (iii) The government’s energy review of 2006 suggested that some new nuclear power stations should be built. </li></ul><ul><li>Using your case study knowledge of a nuclear power station to suggest what factors would be important in choosing the location of a new nuclear power station. (4 marks) </li></ul>
  8. 10. Give two advantages of using nuclear power to generate electricity (2 marks) <ul><li>Fuel less likely to run out (than coal / oil). Low cost of fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little fuel used. </li></ul><ul><li>No greenhouse gases produced. Produces jobs in areas often with few other opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce (large amounts of) electricity cheaply. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not cause acid rain. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Give one disadvantage of using nuclear power to generate electricity (1 mark) <ul><li>High cost of building the power station </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities of release of radioactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in disposing of radioactive waste </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of de-commissioning and length of time to de-commission plant at end of useful life. </li></ul><ul><li>Danger must relate to a specific point. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Using your case study knowledge of a nuclear power station to suggest what factors would be important in choosing the location of a new nuclear power station. (4 marks) <ul><li>Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple statements with no development as to importance of factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Near the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>On hard rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Away from large centres of population. </li></ul><ul><li>Not near an area of seismic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>On poor value land. </li></ul><ul><li>Near transport routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Linked statements with reference to the importance to the stated factor. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be near to the sea so there is plenty of cooling water. E.g. Heysham situated on Morecambe bay </li></ul><ul><li>It should be on hard rock so the power station should have firm foundations. Heysham is situated on firm sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>It should be away from centres of population in case there is a radioactive </li></ul><ul><li>leak. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs to be near transport links for the removal of waste e.g. The west coast rail route is close to the power station so uranium can be transported easily to Heysham and spent fuel rods can be transported to Sellafield for storage or reprocessing </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>2001 Q1 e (iii) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and explain the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power for the generation of electricity. (6 marks) </li></ul>

×