Just to remind you…
With the aid of diagram (s) Explain the formation of waterfalls <ul><li>Alternating bands of hard and soft rock </li></ul>...
Meander bend on the River Conwy A B A cross section through a meander River Cliff FEATURE Slip off slope Erosion PROCESS D...
2007 Q2 (b) Explain why the meander cross-section has this shape <ul><li>The meander cross section is  asymmetrical .  The...
River features: Ox – bow lakes <ul><li>With the aid of diagrams, explain the formation of an oxbow lake (6 marks) (AQAA04)...
What factors increase The risk of flooding? * Impermeable rock * Hard dry soil * Very wet soil *steep slopes * Cutting dow...
Flood protection *Dams  hold back flood waters *reservoirs  store floodwater *straighten channels Increases speed of flow ...
Management of water quality and amenities River pollution *nitrates from fertilisers causes eutrophication Water taken fro...
 
2006 Q 7c Kielder Case study   <ul><li>Many urban areas get their water from upland reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Using an...
corries
<ul><li>2004 B6 Explain the formation of a corrie.(6marks) </li></ul>Level 3 Detailed and clearly relates to the formation...
Grain silos and combines, crops 11.  Less labour – more mechanised farming 10. More farm labour Larger, regular shape 9. I...
 
Case study – Waterside House Farm Annual rainfall high 2000mm Leaches nutrients Low cloud common – no photosynthesis High ...
 
1. OLD INNER CITY AREA -  Sparkhill <ul><li>The zone between CBD and suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Grew during industrial revo...
ROAD PATTERN <ul><li>1. Built in long straight rows/parallel roads. 2. Grid layout, narrow roads and pavements. 3. No gard...
<ul><li>LAND-USE 1. Most of the land is used for housing. 2. Houses built around and in-between factories. </li></ul><ul><...
ADVANTAGES OF LIVING HERE <ul><li>1. Cheap to acquire. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Available for rent - accessible for immigrants...
DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING HERE <ul><li>1. Old, decaying houses. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Surrounded by derelict land when tradit...
2004, P1 Study  Figure 2  on the insert which is an aerial photograph of a new urban development on the rural-urban fringe...
2004, P1 Study  Figure 2  on the insert which is an aerial photograph of a new urban development on the rural-urban fringe...
(c) What evidence is there in the photograph that this is a planned development? <ul><li>Level 1 Basic 1-2 marks </li></ul...
Uses of the Rural Urban Fringe in Birmingham <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Airport – Birmingham International </li...
Suburbanisation  and Commuter Villages <ul><li>Suburbanisation=  The continued expansion of residential areas on the rural...
Commuter Villages & Commuters! Commuter Villages: Commuter villages: Commuters: Commuters: Disadvantages Advantages
 
Characteristics of footloose industries movie
Factors which have attracted industry to M4 corridor <ul><li>Proximity of M4 and mainline railways.  M4 is a  fast reliabl...
<ul><li>Other roads links  to M4 – M25, M40, M5, M3 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper land sites  are found along the M4 corridor ...
<ul><li>Cultural centres  – Oxford, London, Bristol </li></ul><ul><li>A labour force to assemble the products is available...
What attracts footloose industry to M4? <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>M4 links into the UK’s other major motorways (...
<ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Many places of research in M4 corridor producing trained people </li></ul><ul><li>Univers...
 
Advantages <ul><li>Fuel is not burned so there is  minimal pollution  and no waste is  produced </li></ul><ul><li>Water to...
Disadvantages <ul><li>Dams are  expensive to build </li></ul><ul><li>Dams and unsightly pylons in highland valleys cause  ...
Nearby industrial and domestic demand provide the necessary high head of water Steep upland gradients or former waterfall ...
CASE STUDY -  Cruachan  Scotland <ul><li>Cruachan is situated on the western side of Scotland in the Grampian mountains.  ...
Wind energy 2004
Textbook pg 57 - 58 The wind speeds are higher in the west of the country  In Britain there are more days when winds blow ...
Advantages <ul><li>Safe, clean, renewable form of energy </li></ul><ul><li>No air pollution or waste materials produced – ...
Disadvantages <ul><li>30m tall – visual concerns especially if grouped together on ‘wind farms’ </li></ul><ul><li>Expensiv...
CASE STUDY -  Lambrigg wind farm Cumbria. <ul><li>There are 5 turbines which generate 6.5 megawatts of electricity – enoug...
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS. <ul><li>They are not built where they would spoil the natural beauty of National Parks.  </li></ul...
H Q3b Study fig 4 which shows the location of some wind farms in the UK Explain why these locations are likely to have bee...
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Make Sure You Know....

  1. 1. Just to remind you…
  2. 2. With the aid of diagram (s) Explain the formation of waterfalls <ul><li>Alternating bands of hard and soft rock </li></ul><ul><li>Rapids </li></ul><ul><li>River erodes the softer, less resistant bands of rock </li></ul><ul><li>Hard rock undercut </li></ul><ul><li>Soft rock worn away through processes of hydraulic action (force of running water, compresses air in cracks in rock and leads to rock weakening and crumbling) and abrasion (action of running water and it’s load, wearing away at channel sides) </li></ul><ul><li>Plunge pool is formed at base of waterfall </li></ul><ul><li>Overhang eventually collapses providing more material for river to further deepen plunge pool </li></ul><ul><li>Process continues repeating, eventually river erodes further back upstream, leading to the formation of a gorge downstream </li></ul>
  3. 3. Meander bend on the River Conwy A B A cross section through a meander River Cliff FEATURE Slip off slope Erosion PROCESS Deposition Deep DEPTH Shallow Fast SPEED OF FLOW Slow CONCAVE CONVEX
  4. 4. 2007 Q2 (b) Explain why the meander cross-section has this shape <ul><li>The meander cross section is asymmetrical . The river cliff is formed on the outer bend of the meander. This is where the water is deeper and moves more quickly . Hydraulic action and abrasion wear away at the side of the channel, undercutting the river bank to form a river cliff. </li></ul><ul><li>The slip-off slope is formed on the inside bend by deposition of alluvium. Because the water is shallow and moving more slowly at this point the river load gets deposited to form a gentle slope. </li></ul>
  5. 5. River features: Ox – bow lakes <ul><li>With the aid of diagrams, explain the formation of an oxbow lake (6 marks) (AQAA04) </li></ul><ul><li>Form from a meander </li></ul><ul><li>erosion on outside bend especially by hydraulic power </li></ul><ul><li>deposition on inside bends where water is shallower and lower velocity </li></ul><ul><li>neck narrows, breaks through in time of flood </li></ul><ul><li>deposition seals ox bow lake </li></ul><ul><li>eventual loss of lake to form meander scar </li></ul>
  6. 6. What factors increase The risk of flooding? * Impermeable rock * Hard dry soil * Very wet soil *steep slopes * Cutting down trees Building in the drainage basin * Many tributaries
  7. 7. Flood protection *Dams hold back flood waters *reservoirs store floodwater *straighten channels Increases speed of flow *Dredging Makes channel deeper so can hold more water *levees and embankments Prevents river from overflowing *land use zoning Restricts development to uses unaffected by flooding *afforestation Increases interception etc, reduces run off
  8. 8. Management of water quality and amenities River pollution *nitrates from fertilisers causes eutrophication Water taken from river for cooling in power stations is returned warmer and de-oxygenates water Poisonous / smelling waste from industrial sites Domestic sewage containing dissolved chemicals such as phosphorous from washing powder
  9. 10. 2006 Q 7c Kielder Case study <ul><li>Many urban areas get their water from upland reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Using an example of an upland reservoir that you have studied, explain the physical and human advantages of its location. </li></ul>Detailed elaborated or linked statements with precise reference to case study exemplar. Must cover both physical and human advantages of the location. Expect reasonable balance between the two for full marks. Kielder Water is in the relatively narrow valley of the River North Tyne so the (linked statement) size and cost of building the dam was relatively small (physical). The local geology is shale, which is impermeable so the (linked statement) water does not drain away. (physical) The high rainfall of over 1000mm meant that there (linked statement) was an ample supply of water. (physical) The area was sparsely populated so when (linked statement) the valley was flooded there was not too much disruption to the local population. (human) The water could be used in the densely populated industrial areas of North East England which are near by. (human) The population of the north east could also use the reservoir for leisure pursuits such as fishing (human) . (6 marks)
  10. 11. corries
  11. 12. <ul><li>2004 B6 Explain the formation of a corrie.(6marks) </li></ul>Level 3 Detailed and clearly relates to the formation of the corrie . candidate shows both knowledge and understanding of the processes and the sequence e.g. abrasion - material carried in the ice scrapes the rocks on the bed and forms rock flour. Plucking - ice freezes to rock pull material away when moves /rocks already shattered. The snow accumulates in a depression. Under pressure turns to ice and under gravity moves out of the depression and down the mountain-side. The semi-rotational movement of the ice turns the depression into a corrie.
  12. 13. Grain silos and combines, crops 11. Less labour – more mechanised farming 10. More farm labour Larger, regular shape 9. Irregular shaped fields Fewer fields 8. Many fields Amalgamated farms 7.Small farm buildings and farm size Large, modern farm buildings, grain silos, concrete 6.Traditional small farm buildings, stone built Diversification – golf course & carpark 5. All fields Few trees, hedgerows removed 4. Hedges and isolated trees Roads 3.Limited accessibility to farm Tractors, combines 2.Horse pulled cart, plough Much larger fields 1. Small fields 1995 1935
  13. 15. Case study – Waterside House Farm Annual rainfall high 2000mm Leaches nutrients Low cloud common – no photosynthesis High - 2000mm per year Steepnes means it runs off quickly Is high 1476mm per year Water drains down the valley – throughflow and so water table is near surface too wet for growing crops Rainfall Soil is thin, stony and acidic with few plant nutrients Soil is thin and stony in higher areas sticky acidic soils in lower parts Gravelly and silty so it is well drained Some is a sticky clay which is impermeable and acidic Soil Cliffs Too steep for machinery and to improve vegetation Bare rock common Too steep for machinery Gently sloping so that tractors can be used At lake level – may be boggy Only 4ha are flat - not enough space for crops Relief Barton Fell – 520m Sheep can be kept on this land Supports fewer sheep than intake 81ha 160 – 330m rough pasture with many scattered vegetation can only be used for sheep grazing 32ha improved grassland used for growing grass to make silage in summer and to graze sheep in winter Fell land Intake Inbye
  14. 17. 1. OLD INNER CITY AREA - Sparkhill <ul><li>The zone between CBD and suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Grew during industrial revolution – rapid influx of workers from countryside lead to a big and immediate demand for cheap housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Builders constructed as many houses as possible in a small area resulting in: high density terraced, 2 up 2 down back-to-back houses, long straight rows, few amenities (no indoor WC, bathroom, sewerage, or electricity, gardens, open space), overcrowded population. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, many have been enlarged by extensions to provide bathroom and kitchens. </li></ul>
  15. 18. ROAD PATTERN <ul><li>1. Built in long straight rows/parallel roads. 2. Grid layout, narrow roads and pavements. 3. No gardens or garages - on street parking. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>LAND-USE 1. Most of the land is used for housing. 2. Houses built around and in-between factories. </li></ul><ul><li>AMENITIES </li></ul><ul><li>1. Housing cheap, often poor quality, quickly built; no proper kitchens, bathrooms or central heating (outside toilet). 2. Local services catered for the needs of the people, including corner shops, schools, public houses, churches, libraries and parks. </li></ul>
  17. 20. ADVANTAGES OF LIVING HERE <ul><li>1. Cheap to acquire. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Available for rent - accessible for immigrants/the low paid or unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some areas improved substantially/large profits made in last 30 years - gentrification). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Near to city centre - places of employment, shops, entertainment and leisure. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Developed a strong sense of community (doors open directly onto streets). </li></ul>
  18. 21. DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING HERE <ul><li>1. Old, decaying houses. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Surrounded by derelict land when traditional industries declined and factories closed (sunset industry e.g. steel, shipbuilding). </li></ul><ul><li>3. High levels of graffiti and vandalism. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Traffic congestion - problems of &quot;rat- runs&quot; - danger on roads. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Lack of open space. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Above average concentration of pensioners, lone-parents, ethnic minorities and students - poverty/low income levels, unemployment (often above 50% for males). </li></ul><ul><li>7. High levels of disease, illness and over-crowding. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Rising crime rates, poor police and community relations; riots in 1980's - Brixton (London), Toxteth (Liverpool) and Handsworth (Birmingham). </li></ul>
  19. 22. 2004, P1 Study Figure 2 on the insert which is an aerial photograph of a new urban development on the rural-urban fringe of Bristol.
  20. 23. 2004, P1 Study Figure 2 on the insert which is an aerial photograph of a new urban development on the rural-urban fringe of Bristol. <ul><li>( a) Name two kinds of land use shown in this new urban development.(2marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Housing (residential)/industrial/communication/leisure </li></ul><ul><li>recreation. (No credit for farming/retailing) </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Which of the following terms best describes the type of development shown in the photograph? (1 mark) </li></ul><ul><li>counter-urbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>suburbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>gentrification </li></ul><ul><li>suburbanisation </li></ul>
  21. 24. (c) What evidence is there in the photograph that this is a planned development? <ul><li>Level 1 Basic 1-2 marks </li></ul><ul><li>Simple statements, which are largely descriptive repeating the types of land-uses present without any appreciation of the layout of the development. </li></ul><ul><li>There are areas of houses and areas of factories separated by roads. Greenbelt. </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Clear 3-4 marks </li></ul><ul><li>Clear understanding shown. An organised answer, with some linkages. Uses a good range of specialist terms where appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>There are distinctive zones with roads acting as boundaries so that each zone is separate and has a distinctive land-use. The areas nearest the major road are industrial so that …….. The housing area is away from the main road. The area was planned so that the traffic going to the industrial areas was kept separate from the residential area. Greenbelt stops development into the countryside. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Uses of the Rural Urban Fringe in Birmingham <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Airport – Birmingham International </li></ul><ul><li>Business – Blythe Valley Business Park </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation – Golf courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping – Supermarkets, out of town shopping centres. </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul>
  23. 26. Suburbanisation and Commuter Villages <ul><li>Suburbanisation= The continued expansion of residential areas on the rural urban fringe e.g. Monkspath. </li></ul><ul><li>Commuter Villages= A village where and a large number of the residents travel to work each day in another settlement and then back home each evening e.g. Dorridge </li></ul>
  24. 27. Commuter Villages & Commuters! Commuter Villages: Commuter villages: Commuters: Commuters: Disadvantages Advantages
  25. 29. Characteristics of footloose industries movie
  26. 30. Factors which have attracted industry to M4 corridor <ul><li>Proximity of M4 and mainline railways. M4 is a fast reliable route by which components can be delivered to the factories and finished goods delivered to the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Many firms use just in time methods to keep costs down. </li></ul><ul><li>Heathrow airport is close to motorway so expensive hi- tech products can be transported to anywhere in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity to Heathrow Many footloose firms are TNCs who have their HQ abroad, employees need to fly between branches of organisation. By locating in UK they do not need to pay EU tariffs to bring products in to the EU and they have easy access to the large market of 300 million </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>Other roads links to M4 – M25, M40, M5, M3 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper land sites are found along the M4 corridor compared to costs in London </li></ul><ul><li>Easy access to London </li></ul><ul><li>Area west of Bristol into S. Wales has been attractive to TNCs as Welsh Development Agency has provided government grants to assist new firms opening in area – decline in mining and iron and steel industry </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby universities – Oxford, Bristol, Reading, Bath and London </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive environment – Cotswolds, Mendips, Marlborough Downs, Chilterns </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>Cultural centres – Oxford, London, Bristol </li></ul><ul><li>A labour force to assemble the products is available from the expanding towns and villages along M4 corridor </li></ul>
  29. 33. What attracts footloose industry to M4? <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>M4 links into the UK’s other major motorways (M5, M40, M25, M3) allowing easy assembly of raw materials and distribution of finished products (just in time methods of production) </li></ul><ul><li>High speed rail link from London to S. Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Heathrow airport lies between London and Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthiest market in the country is concentrated in London and S. E. </li></ul><ul><li>To east of London there are motorway and Eurostar links to the Channel Tunnel and rest of Europe </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Many places of research in M4 corridor producing trained people </li></ul><ul><li>Universities: Bath, Bristol, Oxford, Reading, London </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of other Government and research centres and associated industries with which information can be exchanged and maintenance and support services shared </li></ul><ul><li>People are happy to live in the area – proximity to London, scenic surroundings, Cotswolds, Chilterns, Marlborough Downs </li></ul>What attracts footloose industry to M4?
  31. 36. Advantages <ul><li>Fuel is not burned so there is minimal pollution and no waste is produced </li></ul><ul><li>Water to run the power plant is provided free by nature </li></ul><ul><li>It's renewable - rainfall renews the water in the reservoir, so the fuel is almost always there </li></ul><ul><li>Dams built to store water for HEP production can also reduce risks of flooding and water shortages . </li></ul>
  32. 37. Disadvantages <ul><li>Dams are expensive to build </li></ul><ul><li>Dams and unsightly pylons in highland valleys cause visual pollution . </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of dam collapsing </li></ul><ul><li>Large areas of farmland and wildlife habitats may have to be flooded forcing people and animals to move. </li></ul><ul><li>Silt previously spread out over farmland will be deposited in the reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Decaying vegetation in flooded area can release methane and carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  33. 38. Nearby industrial and domestic demand provide the necessary high head of water Steep upland gradients or former waterfall Cheap land, sparsely populated Impermeable rock – water does not soak through Narrow valleys are ideal for dam construction and water storage Upland areas where narrow valleys with strong and impermeable rock Large and regular rainfall Relief rainfall ( > 1500mm pa) Low rates of evaporation provides a constant supply of water Found mainly in the north and west of the UK in upland areas REASON HEP REQUIREMENTS
  34. 39. CASE STUDY - Cruachan Scotland <ul><li>Cruachan is situated on the western side of Scotland in the Grampian mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall is over 2,500mm per annum and is evenly distributed throughout the year. Reservoir is kept at a high level and there is always enough water to turn the turbines. </li></ul><ul><li>High cloud cover means there is little water loss by evaporation . </li></ul><ul><li>The impermeable slate rock in the area gives a high surface run off to fill the reservoir with water and means the water does not soak away through the rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>A corrie on the side of Ben Cruachan acts as a reservoir . Corrie is dammed by a concrete barrage 316m long and 46m high </li></ul><ul><li>Steep U-shaped valley provides a head height of 364m to the machine hall. This supplies the energy to generate the electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Only 75km away there is a high demand for electricity in Glasgow and a surface transmission line takes the electricity to urban area. </li></ul>
  35. 40. Wind energy 2004
  36. 41. Textbook pg 57 - 58 The wind speeds are higher in the west of the country In Britain there are more days when winds blow from the west than from any other direction so there are more days when the wind turbines can be operated. Higher up wind speeds are faster and there are fewer obstacles to block the wind. In areas with high and regular wind speeds. Found in exposed coastal locations or in remote upland areas REASON WIND REQUIREMENTS
  37. 42. Advantages <ul><li>Safe, clean, renewable form of energy </li></ul><ul><li>No air pollution or waste materials produced – does not contribute to global warming or acid rain </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal effect on local ecosystems. Land may be farmed at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Winds are stronger in winter when demand for electricity rises </li></ul><ul><li>After initial construction, electricity production is relatively cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Wind farms provide a source of income for farmers and may attract industry in isolated rural communities. </li></ul>
  38. 43. Disadvantages <ul><li>30m tall – visual concerns especially if grouped together on ‘wind farms’ </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to build and maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Wind does not blot all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Hum noise and can interrupt radio and TV signals </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine blades when they rotate may cause strobe light effect to local residents </li></ul>
  39. 44. CASE STUDY - Lambrigg wind farm Cumbria. <ul><li>There are 5 turbines which generate 6.5 megawatts of electricity – enough for 4000 homes. </li></ul><ul><li>On high land 260m above sea level, near the top of a ridge so there are high wind speeds. </li></ul><ul><li>It is on the western side of Britain so it is directly in the path of the prevailing winds. </li></ul><ul><li>Land is moorland and so the farmer can continue to graze his sheep whilst also receiving a rent from National Wind Power. </li></ul><ul><li>Existing electricity transmission line means no extra costs needed to feed the power into the National Grid. </li></ul><ul><li>Next to Jct 37 on M6 and main A684 – building costs of access roads were low. Roads needed for transporting of turbine towers and blades. </li></ul><ul><li>National Wind Power Ltd has developed a ‘good neighbour policy’ grants have been given locally and links made with local schools </li></ul>
  40. 45. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS. <ul><li>They are not built where they would spoil the natural beauty of National Parks. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbines are on the eastern side of the ridge and so are hidden from tourists and residents in S. Cumbria. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbines are positioned just below the top of the ridge so that only some of the blades can be seen on the skyline. </li></ul><ul><li>Local population did not object on noise grounds as the nearest house is 1km away and noise of turbines is drowned by noise of traffic on M6. </li></ul>
  41. 46. H Q3b Study fig 4 which shows the location of some wind farms in the UK Explain why these locations are likely to have been chosen F Q3c Study fig 4 which shows the location of some wind farms in the UK Using figure 4 and your own knowledge, explain the locations of wind farms in the UK

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