L11 Uk Water Supply And Demand


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L11 Uk Water Supply And Demand

  1. 1. UK water management Key idea: Rivers are managed to provide a water supply. There are a variety of issues resulting from this. Need blank UK map
  2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>To explain why there is an increasing demand for water in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Know and be able to map areas of deficit and areas of surplus. </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the need for transfer and give one example. </li></ul><ul><li>To know details of Kielder Water as a case study of a dam/reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to explain the resulting economic, social and environmental issues </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to explain why there is the need for sustainable supplies. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2000Q3 OLD AQA SPEC B </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Using only evidence from Fig 4, describe the distribution of the reservoirs shown (2) </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Name a reservoir on Fig 4 that is in the Lake District (1) </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) In the 1990s there were water shortages in parts of the UK. Give three reasons that help to explain this (3) </li></ul><ul><li>b. In some parts of the UK groundwater supplies are more important than surface reservoirs. Explain why (5) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Water storage – key terms <ul><li>Porous – rock with spaces between the particles which make up the rock </li></ul><ul><li>Permeable – rock which allows water to pass through the pore spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Pervious – rock which allows water to pass through via cracks </li></ul><ul><li>Impermeable – rock which does not allow water to pass through </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater - water stored underground in areas of permeable rock </li></ul><ul><li>Water Stress – see page 121 </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of deficit - see page 121 </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of surplus - see page 121 </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>¾ of UK’s water supply comes from mountain lakes, upland reservoirs and rivers </li></ul><ul><li>25% comes from underground stores </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ref pg 120 / 121 AQA A Demand for water is increasing for the following reasons: <ul><li>UK’s population now exceeds 60 million </li></ul><ul><li>Water consumption per head is high </li></ul><ul><li>Increased domestic use – dishwashers, washing machines, garden hoses etc </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use in farming – with hotter and drier summers arable farmers are using irrigation for crops </li></ul><ul><li>Increased electricity demand and therefore generation – thermal and nuclear both use water for cooling </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rainfall map of t Rainfall map of the United Kingdom   Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain he United Kingdom   Fig 1. - Annual precipitation over Great Britain Heaviest rainfall Areas with most cloud cover Lowest summer temperatures – less loss of water due to evaporation or transpiration Areas with low population density WATER SURPLUS WATER DEFICIT Demand > Supply Rainfall is lower Evaporation and transpiration is high 1/3 UK population lives in SE IN THE WEST IN THE EAST
  8. 8. homework <ul><li>It is clear that the demand for water is increasing. What can be done to increase supplies? Go to www.bbc.co.uk/news </li></ul><ul><li>Research how we and water companies can be more water efficient </li></ul>
  9. 9. how can supply/demand be managed? <ul><li>Water companies are reducing leaks , each day, millions of litres are lost through leaking pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Build more reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>As consumers we are being encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water </li></ul><ul><li>Demand can be satisfied by water transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Community tanks at end of streets with electric swipe cards so that only those people on the street have access to that supply </li></ul><ul><li>recycling </li></ul><ul><li>How are we encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water? </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring water by pipeline is costly </li></ul><ul><li>Some aqueducts were build many years ago. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How are we encouraged to be more efficient in our use of water? *rainwater can be collected *bathwater can be recycled to flush toilets *showers use less water than taking a bath – heads that limit water * Houses are being designed with better water efficiency * Devices are fitted to toilet cisterns to reduce water use *water meter – charge people for the exact volume of water that they use households with a water meter use less water - on average, 19 litres per person per day less *hose pipe bans * Education – TV ads
  11. 11. <ul><li>A traditional solution to unequal supply of water has been to transfer water from areas of surplus to areas of deficit. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers by river are easier and cheaper but they raise environmental concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Severn – Thames transfer has highlighted several problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Severn river water has different mineral, nutrient, acidity and temperature characteristics of Thames water – what will be the impact of the transfer on insect fish and plant life be on the Thames </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of building dams, tunnels etc would be hundreds of millions of ££££ </li></ul><ul><li>Land will be lost, habitats destroyed and migratory habitats disturbed </li></ul><ul><li>There is no gain to the Welsh people and their local economy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Water has to be managed sustainably <ul><li>The supply of water from the reservoir has to be sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>People should be able to get all the water they need today without stopping people in the future from having enough water </li></ul><ul><li>People can’t deplete the water supply or damage the environment too much or the supply won’t be the same in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>People should only take out as much water as is replaced by the rivers that supply it. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Where does Birmingham get its water from? <ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/mid/sites/history/pages/facts.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>Other case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Rutland Water – East Midlands (CGP pg 52) </li></ul><ul><li>Kielder Water Understanding Geography Bowen and Pallister pg 95 </li></ul><ul><li>Vyrnwy – Liverpool AQA A pg 122 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Plenary…. <ul><li>Which areas of the UK have a water deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Give one potential problem of water transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Name a reservoir in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by a sustainable water supply? </li></ul>