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Issues for people living in squatter settlements in led cs


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Issues for people living in squatter settlements in led cs

  1. 1. Issues for people living in squatter settlements in poorer parts of the world References: AQA A pg 205-6 B&P 162/3 CGP pg 89
  2. 2. Syllabus Key idea • Rapid urbanisation has led to the development of squatter settlements and an informal sector to the economy Specification content • Characteristics of squatter settlements • Effect on the lives of the people of living in squatter settlements
  3. 3. Lesson Objectives All will understand why squatter settlements have developed, their characteristics and effects on people’s lives. Most will understand that there are positives and negatives about moving to the cities. Some will understand why quality of life is not always better in the cities.
  5. 5. Most big cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America are surrounded by unplanned, make shift shanty towns and it is common for 50% or more of the city’s population to live in them Brazil – favelas North Africa - bidonvilles Kolkata – bustees Shanty towns are sited on any available spare land – steep slopes, marsh, rubbish tips These areas are often avoided by authorities because they are prone to landslides, flooding or industrial pollution.
  6. 6. The settlements are unplanned and illegal The shacks and shelters are homemade, built from anything people can lay their hands on – wood, corrugated iron, cardboard, polythene and 5 gallon oil drums They are typically only one or two rooms where the family eats, lives and sleeps Most shacks lack basic amenities such as electricity, gas, drainage, running water and toilets. In bustees one water tap and one toilet may be shared by 30 people. Sewage often runs down the streets and pollutes the water supply leading to water borne diseases such as diarrhoea, typhoid and cholera. Diseases spread quickly because of the high density housing. Life expectancy is lower
  7. 7. There may be no refuse collection Infant mortality rates are high Healthcare is often too expensive and too far away to access Many families suffer from malnutrition Children do not go to school The family lives on top of each other and there is no privacy Local shops and stalls sell a limited range of poor quality foods that lack the necessary components of a healthy diet Stress of living leads to divorce, crime There are large numbers of ‘street children’ who have either run away or been abandoned due to family break- up. Areas may lack policing, medical services and fire fighting services Some areas are controlled by gangs and ‘drug lords’ and are no-go areas for police – Rio de Janeiro
  8. 8. Economic problems For the newly arrived migrant the main problem is finding work. With few jobs available in the formal sector for non-skilled and illiterate rural people, most are forced to look for work in the informal sector as very low paid street sellers, shoe shiners, couriers, gardeners, waste collectors and domestic servants. The jobs aren’t taxed or monitored by the government. People often work long hours for little pay. For those that do get work in the city centre travelling there is expensive. Shanty dwellers continue to have more children in the hope that at least one of the family will get a job that will allow the whole family to move out of the slum and into a proper residential neighbourhood.
  9. 9. One of the largest slums in Asia: Area – 175 hectares Population – between 600 000 to 1 000 000 Site – formerly a mangrove swamp Hygiene – 1 toilet per 1 440
  10. 10. Dharavi (12 mins)
  11. 11. Key Terms Squatter Settlements • Areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are built by people of any materials that they can find on land that does not belong to them. Such settlements have different names in different parts of the world (e.g. favelas in Brazil) and are often known as shanty towns. Informal Sector • That part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (e.g. taking in washing, mending bicycles) and which are not recognised in official figures.
  12. 12. Lesson Objectives • All will understand why squatter settlements have developed and their characteristics and effects on people’s lives. • Most will understand what strategies have been introduced to improve living conditions in these areas. • Some will be able to evaluate the success of these strategies.