Footloose Industry 2


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Footloose Industry 2

  1. 1. Footloose industry
  2. 2. Factors that affect The Location of industry *S *R M *L *T *M
  3. 3. Lesson objectives: <ul><li>To know the characteristics of Footloose industries </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to draw an annotated sketch map of the M4 corridor </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to explain why footloose industries are attracted to locations along the M4 corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Exam question </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are footloose industries? <ul><li>A hi-tech industry makes products which are sophisticated and involve a lot of scientific research and development . </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a large number of different components to produce a low weight, high value product </li></ul><ul><li>They are often referred to as footloose industries because they have a free choice of where to locate – not tied to markets, energy or raw material location. </li></ul>
  5. 5. M4 corridor <ul><li>Zone of mainly footloose industries which stretches from London westwards to Bristol following course of M4 </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest concentration is between London and Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive greenfield locations </li></ul><ul><li>Close to London – but prices for premises and housing is a lot cheaper </li></ul>
  6. 6. The M4 “Corridor” UK
  7. 8. Characteristics of footloose industries movie
  8. 10. Characteristics: <ul><li>Light industries – rely on component parts </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity – available from National Grid </li></ul><ul><li>End product is small and often cheaper and easier to move </li></ul><ul><li>Employs a small labour force </li></ul><ul><li>Non-polluting – can locate near to residential areas </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility – needs to be near a road network </li></ul>
  9. 12. Factors which have attracted industry to M4 corridor <ul><li>Proximity of M4 and mainline railways. M4 is a fast reliable route by which components can be delivered to the factories and finished goods delivered to the market </li></ul><ul><li>Many firms use just in time methods to keep costs down </li></ul><ul><li>Heathrow airport is close to motorway so expensive hi- tech products can be transported to anywhere in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity to Heathrow Many footloose firms are TNCs who have their HQ abroad, employees need to fly between branches of organisation. By locating in UK they do not need to pay EU tariffs to bring products in to the EU and they have easy access to the large market of 300 million </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Other roads links to M4 – M25, M40, M5, M3 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper land sites are found along the M4 corridor compared to costs in London </li></ul><ul><li>Easy access to London </li></ul><ul><li>Area west of Bristol into S. Wales has been attractive to TNCs as Welsh Development Agency has provided government grants to assist new firms opening in area – decline in mining and iron and steel industry </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby universities – Oxford, Bristol, Reading, Bath and London </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive environment – Cotswolds, Mendips, Marlborough Downs, Chilterns </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Cultural centres – Oxford, London, Bristol </li></ul><ul><li>A labour force to assemble the products is available from the expanding towns and villages along M4 corridor </li></ul>
  12. 15. What attracts footloose industry to M4? <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>M4 links into the UK’s other major motorways (M5, M40, M25, M3) allowing easy assembly of raw materials and distribution of finished products (just in time methods of production) </li></ul><ul><li>High speed rail link from London to S. Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Heathrow airport lies between London and Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthiest market in the country is concentrated in London and S. E. </li></ul><ul><li>To east of London there are motorway and Eurostar links to the Channel Tunnel and rest of Europe </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Many places of research in M4 corridor producing trained people </li></ul><ul><li>Universities: Bath, Bristol, Oxford, Reading, London </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of other Government and research centres and associated industries with which information can be exchanged and maintenance and support services shared </li></ul><ul><li>People are happy to live in the area – proximity to London, scenic surroundings, Cotswolds, Chilterns, Marlborough Downs </li></ul>What attracts footloose industry to M4?
  14. 17. Industrial Estates, Science Parks, Business Parks <ul><li>Found: </li></ul><ul><li>Edge of towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose built estates </li></ul><ul><li>Close to centres of research </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages over inner city locations: </li></ul><ul><li>Space – for single storey factories and future expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper land values </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility to main roads and motorways </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant environment </li></ul><ul><li>Labour supply from residential areas and commuter villages </li></ul>
  15. 18. Aztec West Business Park, UK Flintbags
  16. 19. Aztec West
  17. 20. Case Study – Aztec West Business Park <ul><li>Science technology park developed in 1980s and 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Located western end of ‘Silicon strip’ / M4 corridor </li></ul><ul><li>on an area of flat land </li></ul><ul><li>adjacent to the M4 / M5 motorway junction – easy access for components, markets and employees </li></ul><ul><li>Greenfield site on outskirts of Bristol 63 ha </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of science and hi – tech firms 100 businesses, 6000 jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Quick travelling time to London and Heathrow airport </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of a number of other research centres </li></ul><ul><li>Site has good services and amenities e.g. pub, cafes hotel, wine bar, newsagent, hairdresser </li></ul><ul><li>Modern buildings, landscaped to provide ‘quality of life in a business environment </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby universities – Bath, Bristol </li></ul><ul><li>Local expertise from established industries - Rolls Royce and British Aerospace </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby Cotswolds </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>2002 P1 Higher paper </li></ul><ul><li>Fig 9 shows part of Southern England, including the area covered by the Ordnance Survey map extract and photograph D. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the piece of land shown in Photograph D could be a good site for the development of a hi-tech industrial firm. You must refer to Figure 9, the Ordnance Survey map extract and Photograph D in your answer </li></ul><ul><li>2002 P1 Foundation paper </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the different ways in which each of the following would affect the location of a hi – tech firm based in Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Nearby universities </li></ul><ul><li>The M4 </li></ul><ul><li>London </li></ul><ul><li>2004 </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Explain why high-tech industry has grown up along the M4 corridor </li></ul><ul><li>(6 marks). </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Photo D shows a greenfield site – flat land suitable for the building of new light industry. </li></ul><ul><li>OS map shows Reading university GS 7371 this will provide companies with skilled graduates and a research centre </li></ul><ul><li>Both OS map and sketch map ( fig 9 ) show good transport links by both road and rail which means that components can be delivered using the ‘just in time’ principle. Finished products can be distributed easily to markets. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. M4 and A239(M) Junction 10 and 11. Fig 9 shows that the routes link London to Bristol and South Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Wokingham and Reading are also on direct rail links to London for workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Wokingham Bracknell and Reading are urban areas providing markets </li></ul>
  20. 23. Hi tech industry Japan : M4
  21. 24. <ul><li>Plenary </li></ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul><ul><li>Answer 2003 short course </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to blog for powerpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 23 revision idea – venn diagram </li></ul>