3.4.2.8 Mass movement
Human causes and consequences
             of
       mass movement
  1. Recognize and understand hum...
Human influence
• People can alter the balance of conditions on a
  hillslope in many ways such as by undermining the
  sl...
Human triggers


• Individual landslides may be caused by a
  number of factors (active causes), and
  there may be trigge...
Other human causes…
Filling a reservoir may also lead to bank
saturation and land sliding.

The construction of dams can t...
How can slopes be stabilised?
• Plant vegetation to bind the soil together and
  intercept rainfall
• Improve drainage to ...
Case study
Deadly landslide hits Indonesia 12.01.07
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6254469.stm
Indonesia la...
Case studies of Human
         mismanagement….
Ref Waugh page 54 / 55
(b) Building dams to create reservoirs – Italy
    1...
Task ….
• Complete question 6 Waugh page 57
Exam Q 2008
 The table below shows some of the factors that affect the probability of
 rapid mass movements.


         Na...
May 05
‘Slope instability is entirely due to human
  activity.’
Using examples, assess this statement


Waugh pg 57 Q9
 Us...
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3.4.2 Human Causes And Consequences Of Mass Movement V2

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3.4.2 Human Causes And Consequences Of Mass Movement V2

  1. 1. 3.4.2.8 Mass movement Human causes and consequences of mass movement 1. Recognize and understand human causes of mass movement: – Deforestation – building on steep gradients – road construction – other activities that cause slope instability. 2. Use a specific case study to illustrate the consequences and responses to a contemporary example of human -induced mass movement.
  2. 2. Human influence • People can alter the balance of conditions on a hillslope in many ways such as by undermining the slope by: – mining and quarrying, – excavation for a building site, road or pipeline – terracing land for farming • Instability may also be increased by adding a load such as spoil from an excavation to the top of a slope. • Cutting timber decreases slope stability – forests may be cut down for firewood or to make way for agriculture Trees help stability by adding root strength to the soil and by transpiring excess water.. Deforestation encourages more surface run off and soil
  3. 3. Human triggers • Individual landslides may be caused by a number of factors (active causes), and there may be triggering mechanisms such as: – Blasting (human) – vibration caused by traffic (human)
  4. 4. Other human causes… Filling a reservoir may also lead to bank saturation and land sliding. The construction of dams can trigger landslides and earthquakes as the weight of the water depresses the rock strata under the lake.
  5. 5. How can slopes be stabilised? • Plant vegetation to bind the soil together and intercept rainfall • Improve drainage to prevent the slope becoming saturated and to stop lines of weakness for example bedding planes becoming lubricated • Use wire nets and metal stakes to hold a slope together • Reduce the gradient by adding material to the base of a slope.
  6. 6. Case study Deadly landslide hits Indonesia 12.01.07 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6254469.stm Indonesia landslides bury dozens 26.12.07 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7160138.stm Indonesian landslide toll mounts 27.12.07 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7161480.stm Two dead in Indonesia landslide 6.2.08 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7229813.stm
  7. 7. Case studies of Human mismanagement…. Ref Waugh page 54 / 55 (b) Building dams to create reservoirs – Italy 1963 (c) Dumping waste material – Aberfan 1966 (d) Urbanisation – Hong Kong 1948 - 1998
  8. 8. Task …. • Complete question 6 Waugh page 57
  9. 9. Exam Q 2008 The table below shows some of the factors that affect the probability of rapid mass movements. Natural factors Human factors Snow melt Deforestation Weathering Traffic vibration Slope angle Road construction Rock type / structure Loading slopes with waste material Seismic activity Addition of water Factor A Factor B Identify factors A and B Select one natural and one human factor from the table (excluding factors you chose for A and B and explain how each contributes to slope instability (4 marks) Using a specific case study, examine the causes, consequences and responses to a rapid mass movement influenced by human activity. (10 marks)
  10. 10. May 05 ‘Slope instability is entirely due to human activity.’ Using examples, assess this statement Waugh pg 57 Q9 Using case studies from a range of environments, explain how an understanding of natural processes can be used in planning urban developments

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