3.10.3a Cultural Integration


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3.10.3a Cultural Integration

  1. 1. 3.10.3a Factors affecting cultural integration Recognize that the factors affecting cultural integration include technological change, transnational corporations (TNCs), global media networks, the Internet, tourism, migration and the actions of governments.
  2. 2. Who? what where why how What’s the significance of the image? What questions spring to mind?
  3. 3. Tasks … <ul><li>What is cultural integration? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the following factors affect cultural integration: </li></ul>migration Action of governments Global tourism The internet Global media network Technological changes How, why examples Factor
  4. 4. What is culture? <ul><li>Culture denotes the framework of shared meanings( language, religion, custom and tradition, ideas about place) which people who belong to the same community, group or nation use to help them make sense of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Culture defines the lifestyle of people and their values and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is expressed through language, customs, traditions, thinking, behaviour, faith, music, clothing. Art. Technology, food architecture, dance etc </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures shift and change </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is a process </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a sense of who we are, where we belong, a sense of our own identity and identity with others </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is one of the principal means by which identities are formed </li></ul>
  5. 5. Maori of New Zealand Cultural traits include: Traditional dress Language Architecture of their marae Spiritual beliefs and myths
  6. 6. <ul><li>Supporters of the idea of an emerging global culture suggest that different places and cultural practices around the world are converging and becoming more similar. </li></ul><ul><li>A global culture might be the product of: </li></ul><ul><li>The expor t of supposedly superior cultural traits and products from advanced countries and their worldwide adoption ( westernization , Americanization, modernisation) </li></ul><ul><li>The mixing of cultures through greater interconnections and time space compression (idea of shrinking world through transport links and technological innovation leading to a new universal cultural practice) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Globalisation and culture <ul><li>Italian pizza now accepted world wide </li></ul><ul><li>MacDonalds – American, local in many countries </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Globalisation works against the preservation of traditional cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions and ways of life that have survived for centuries are finding it difficult to withstand the pressures of foreign influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall 1995 ‘ global consumerism spreads the same thin cultural film over everything – Big Macs, Coca Cola and Nike trainers everywhere – inviting everyone to take on western consumer identities and obscuring profound differences of history and tradition between cultures’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cultural diffusion is not new: </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration by traders </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of trading links in areas that produced different goods from the home area </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in new areas by traders and a return of profits to the investors </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of production of raw materials, commodities and food in the new areas where investment has occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Conquest and colonisation by the trading power imposing new systems of government and culture on local cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Migration of colonists to new colonies bringing further cultural impact to colonial areas </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Legal system </li></ul><ul><li>education </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adoption vs Adaption <ul><li>Where people adopt a new cultural trait they take it in its entirety – perhaps abandoning some traditions or beliefs in order to do so. (coca-cola, microsoft) </li></ul><ul><li>Where it is adapted it is modified in some way so it can be accommodated within the new framework of an existing culture </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. MacDonalds – glocalisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting its menu in different locations to agree with local cultural customs – e.g. Muslims not eating pork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindus not eating beef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including fish on menu in Norway </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Technological changes <ul><li>New technologies such as the internet, satellite communications etc mean that the world is becoming more global and interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>increased speed of transport and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Power of global finance market </li></ul>
  12. 12. Factors affecting cultural integration - TNCs <ul><li>According to Instituto del Tercer Mundo 1999 there are: </li></ul><ul><li>about 37,000 major TNCs </li></ul><ul><li>some 170,000 subsidiaries </li></ul><ul><li>200 of the TNCs control the bulk of world trade </li></ul><ul><li>These 200 have HQ in just 9 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Top 20 TNCs share 32% of world GDP (1995) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Because of widening gap between rich and poor in developing countries it is seldom the same people who would eat in an American fast food outlet in China and work at an American shoe factory in China </li></ul><ul><li>Fast food companies – many are US based who have established operations in many countries with different cultural backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>They often charge prices similar to those charged in US – these can be higher than local food restaurants. </li></ul><ul><li>They establish a fashionable image of exotic ‘foreign’ American food that encourages local residents to spend a significant proportion of weekly salary on single meal </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to local food outlets, TNCs are clean and safe </li></ul><ul><li>TNC foods have a higher fat content to local foods – which leads to problems of obesity with locals who frequently eat there. </li></ul><ul><li>TNCs adapt to local conditions whilst maintaining their image </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. McDonalds adapt menu </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza Hut deliver in insulated boxes on the back of bicycles in China rather than in cars or motor bikes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Global media networks <ul><li>1960s international telephone calls travelled by undersea cable that could each carry about 100 simultaneous calls. Communications satellites first used in late 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>By 2001 over 200 communications satellites in orbit, each capable of handling tens of thousands of phone calls plus several television transmissions a the same time </li></ul><ul><li>As communications technology has improved global communications, several media networks have taken advantage of the technological improvements and established global networks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BBC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The attraction of such global media networks is that information and entertainment can reach most parts of the world almost instantly </li></ul><ul><li>The danger is that the culture of the media network’s home nation may come to suppress the culture of the society into which the programs are being broadcast. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Television <ul><li>TV programmes used to be produced primarily for the domestic audience within a country and could be subjected to rigorous governmental control. </li></ul><ul><li>With the advent of cable, satellite and digital technologies, in addition to political and legal deregulation several TV channels are now globally disseminated. </li></ul><ul><li>US, France, Germany and the UK are the major exporters of TV programmes whilst Brazil, Hong Kong, Mexico, Egypt and Spain are increasing their output </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>National media systems are being superseded by global media complexes. Around 20 to 30 large TNCs dominate the global entertainment and media industry. All of which are from the West and most of which are from the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Time- Warner, Disney, News Corporation, Universal Studios, BBC </li></ul>
  17. 17. Internet <ul><li>Growth in telecommunications has allowed the internet to grow rapidly in recent years </li></ul><ul><li>Internet came into existence in late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>By 1998 there were 147,800,000 internet users worldwide 52% of whom were in US </li></ul><ul><li>2001 326 million internet users, 67% used English as first language </li></ul><ul><li>2004 801 million users of whom 35% used English as first language </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>As the internet spreads to more countries, it has the capacity to: </li></ul><ul><li>influence local cultures and ways of thinking by introducing new ideas quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate quickly and cheaply with other people through chat sessions </li></ul><ul><li>It is a powerful agent of cultural change because it has the potential to reach so many users </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>An internet host might be </li></ul><ul><li>An individual computer </li></ul><ul><li>A local area network </li></ul><ul><li>A gateway to a wider area network </li></ul><ul><li>The interconnectivity of the internet is one of its main advantages and many users make use of its capacity to disseminate information widely cheaply and quickly. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Global tourism <ul><li>Tourism is an obvious form of globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>It is dominated by people of all classes from rich countries. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be exploitative, particularly through the growth of international sex tourism and the dependency of some poor countries on the exploitation of women. </li></ul><ul><li>International cultural exchange which allows large numbers of people to experience other cultures and places </li></ul><ul><li>Medical tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is now the world’s largest industry. The journey of many British people to Costa del Sol where they practise cultural traits such as drinking beer and eating fish and chips whilst lying on a crowded beach surrounded by tall buildings is a commonly held stereotype </li></ul>
  21. 21. Migration <ul><li>Migration is becoming more global, more countries are affected, the diversity of areas of origin is increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration is accelerating with the number of movements growing in volume </li></ul><ul><li>Migration is becoming more differentiated with no one type of movement dominating a country’s flows. Types of movement include permanent settlers, refugees, skilled labour, economic migrants, students, retirees, arranged brides etc. </li></ul><ul><li>More women migrants – joining earlier male migrants, labour migrants, refugees </li></ul>
  22. 22. Action of Governments <ul><li>The spread of liberal democracy has been profound and is now practised in the vast majority of nation states across the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying this diffusion is the western enlightenment belief that it is the most desirable form of governance. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Blocs and Agreements, The European Union </li></ul><ul><li>China opening its doors </li></ul><ul><li>Action in Iraq and Afghanistan </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>May 05 </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Briefly explain what is meant by cultural integration. [2 marks] </li></ul><ul><li>A basic definition of the term such as “increasing interaction of people from different backgrounds” gains [1 mark] . </li></ul><ul><li>Further development of the statement is necessary to achieve [2 marks] . </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how any two of the factors shown on the diagram contribute to cultural integration. [2+2 marks] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid suggestions as to how each factor affects cultural integration score up to [2 marks] for each factor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify two factors not shown on the diagram. Suggest how these two factors affect cultural integration. [4 marks] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each factor ( e.g. TNCs/trade/transport) is worth [2 marks] provided it is developed to sufficient depth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept the Internet as a separate factor even though it could be assumed to be part of the global media network (unless it has been discussed in part (ii)). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. iv) Using examples, analyse the social costs of tourism. [10 marks] <ul><li>Analysis of social costs must include detailed examination of issues. These could include: </li></ul><ul><li>• loss of cultural heritage and tradition </li></ul><ul><li>• dilution of language and consequent loss of identity </li></ul><ul><li>• prostitution and the other effects of sex tourism </li></ul><ul><li>• comparisons with rich tourists lifestyles fomenting discontent </li></ul><ul><li>• break-up of families </li></ul><ul><li>• disruptive changes in values and/or religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>• alcoholism and drug abuse </li></ul><ul><li>• demeaning jobs serving tourists </li></ul><ul><li>• changes in the perceived position of women in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Any response that fails to analyse may not move beyond band F. </li></ul><ul><li>Any response that lacks examples may not move beyond band E. </li></ul><ul><li>The marks should be allocated according to the markbands. </li></ul>