Session 5 gdas pmp study group presentation

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Session 5 gdas pmp study group presentation

  1. 1. GDAS PM Professions:PMP Study Group Session #5: Time ManagementMonique HowardOctober 16, 2008© 2005 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice
  2. 2. 1. Please refer to the diagram given below: (all units are in days)What is the project float if management wants to do this project within ten days?A. 0 daysB. -4 daysC. 2 daysD. Cannot be determined because information in the question is inconsistent
  3. 3. Correct Choice:     B  (-4 days)Justification:     The different paths possible are as follows: * Start -> Task1 -> Task2 -> Task3 -> End : 10 * Start -> Task1 -> Task2 -> Task3 -> Task6 -> End : 14 * Start -> Task4 -> Task5 -> Task6 -> End: 13 * Start -> Task4 -> Task5 -> Task3 -> Task6 -> End: 14 * Start -> Task4 -> Task5 -> Task3 -> End: 10 So, the critical path is 14. If the project has to be completed within 10 days, the project float is - 4 days (i.e 10 - 14) Please note: A project may have a negative project float. To deal with such conditions, if the project has to be completed on time, the project manager will have to either fast-track or crash the project schedule.Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
  4. 4. 2. All the following are advantages of GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques) as compared with PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) EXCEPT:A. Allows loopingB. Allows for dummy tasksC. Allows branchingD. Allows multiple project end results
  5. 5. 2. All the following are advantages of GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques) as compared with PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) EXCEPT: A. Allows looping B. Allows for dummy tasks C. Allows branching D. Allows multiple project end resultsCorrect Choice:     B Justification:     Graphical Evaluation and Review techniques are similar to PERT but have thedistinct advantages of allowing for looping, branching, and multiple project end results.Reference: Project Management - A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling,Page Number: 679
  6. 6. 3. It is important to identify and document the specific work that is planned to be performed and also identify deliverables at the work package level. This is done as part of:A. Activity DefinitionB. DecompositionC. Scope DefinitionD. Activity Sequencing
  7. 7. 3. It is important to identify and document the specific work that is planned to be performed and also identify deliverables at the work package level. This is done as part of:A. Activity DefinitionB. DecompositionC. Scope DefinitionD. Activity Sequencing Correct Choice:     A  Justification:     Activity Definition: Defining the schedule activities involves identifying and documenting the work that is planned to be performed. The activity definition process will identify the deliverables at the lowest level in the WBS, which is called the work package. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 127
  8. 8. 4. In schedule development, mathematical analysis often produces a preliminary early- start schedule that shows peaks and valleys in the resource requirements. Resource leveling done to take care of this issue may result in all of the following EXCEPT:A. Increase in project durationB. Utilization of weekends, extended hours or multiple shiftsC. Productivity increases by using different technologies and/or methodologiesD. Reduction in project cost 
  9. 9. 4. In schedule development, mathematical analysis often produces a preliminary early- start schedule that shows peaks and valleys in the resource requirements. Resource leveling done to take care of this issue may result in all of the following EXCEPT:A. Increase in project durationB. Utilization of weekends, extended hours or multiple shiftsC. Productivity increases by using different technologies and/or methodologiesD. Reduction in project cost  Correct Choice:     D   Justification:     pmstudy.com comments: As different techniques like crashing, fast tracking, resource reallocation etc. are being considered for resource leveling, there is a real possibility of an increase in costs. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 147
  10. 10. 5. All the following statements regarding the creation of Time Estimates are correct EXCEPT:A. Mathematical analysis like CPM, GERT and PERT indicate the dates on which the activity can be scheduled given resource limits and other constraints.B. Duration compression techniques including fast tracking and crashing can help in decreasing the project scheduleC. WBS classification allows for useful activity ordering and sorting.D. The duration of the project is the sum of the duration of all the tasks in the project. 
  11. 11. 5. All the following statements regarding the creation of Time Estimates are correct EXCEPT:A. Mathematical analysis like CPM, GERT and PERT indicate the dates on which the activity can be scheduled given resource limits and other constraints.B. Duration compression techniques including fast tracking and crashing can help in decreasing the project scheduleC. WBS classification allows for useful activity ordering and sorting.D. The duration of the project is the sum of the duration of all the tasks in the project. Correct Choice:     D  Justification:     The duration of the project should be calculated after drawing a network diagramand determining the critical path. The duration of the project is the length of the critical path, andnot the sum of the duration of all the tasks in the project.Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
  12. 12. 6. A management control point can be placed at selected management points (specific components at selected levels) of the WBS above the work package level. These control points can be:A. Used for rolling wave planning  B. Decomposed further to help in the creation of Work Authorization System  C. Used for planning known work content that does not have detailed schedule activities  D. Used as a basis for planning when associated work packages have not yet been planned 
  13. 13. 6. A management control point can be placed at selected management points (specific components at selected levels) of the WBS above the work package level. These control points can be:A. Used for rolling wave planning  B. Decomposed further to help in the creation of Work Authorization System  C. Used for planning known work content that does not have detailed schedule activities  D. Used as a basis for planning when associated work packages have not yet been planned Correct Choice:     D  Justification:     Control Account : .... A management control point can be placed at selectedmanagement points (specific components at selected levels) of the WBS above the work packagelevel. These control points are used as a basis for planning when associated work packages havenot yet been planned.Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 129
  14. 14. 7. In your project, some requested changes were generated from the Activity Definition Process. These changes will be processed through:A. Activity Change Control System B. Corrective Action C. Integrated Change Control System D. Activity Sequencing
  15. 15. 7. In your project, some requested changes were generated from the Activity Definition Process. These changes will be processed through:A. Activity Change Control System B. Corrective Action C. Integrated Change Control System D. Activity SequencingCorrect Choice:     C Justification:     Requested changes are processed for review and disposition through theIntegrated Change Control process.Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 130
  16. 16. 8. Please refer to this diagram:What is the effect on the project if the duration of task J is increased to 9 weeks?  A. No effect since task J is not on the critical path   B. Risk of the project will increase  C. The overall time-frame required to complete the project will increase by 1 week  D. None of the above
  17. 17. Correct Choice:     B (Risk of the project will increase)Justification: If the duration of task J is increased by 1 week, Start -> G -> I -> J ->End = 23 weeks; this also lies on the critical path (23 days).Since there are 3 critical paths now, a delay in any of the critical paths will delaythe overall project - this increases the overall risk for the project.Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
  18. 18. 9. A project has a critical path of twenty-three weeks. What is the impact on the critical path if the management wants you to complete the project in twenty weeks?A. Duration of the critical path increases by three weeks.   B. Duration of the critical path decreases by three weeks.   C. Duration of the critical path remains same.   D. Duration of the critical path cannot be determined. 
  19. 19. 9. A project has a critical path of twenty-three weeks. What is the impact on the critical path if the management wants you to complete the project in twenty weeks?A. Duration of the critical path increases by three weeks.   B. Duration of the critical path decreases by three weeks.   C. Duration of the critical path remains same.   D. Duration of the critical path cannot be determined. Correct Choice:     C  Justification:     Duration of critical path = 23 weeksIf the management wants to complete the project in twenty weeks, then the project float will be : 20 -23 = -3 weeks The project float compares the critical path with an externally imposed date and maybe negative. (you may be forced to fast-track or perform crashing to ensure that the project iscompleted within the dates required by the management)But, there will be no change to the critical path.Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
  20. 20. 10. You are doing a Monte Carlo Analysis in which you are defining a distribution of possible activity durations for each schedule activity and calculating a distribution of possible outcomes for the total project. Monte Carlo analysis is an example of:A. Resource Leveling B. What-if Scenario Analysis C. Schedule Network Analysis D. Critical Path Method
  21. 21. 10. You are doing a Monte Carlo Analysis in which you are defining a distribution of possible activity durations for each schedule activity and calculating a distribution of possible outcomes for the total project. Monte Carlo analysis is an example of:A. Resource Leveling B. What-if Scenario Analysis C. Schedule Network Analysis D. Critical Path Method Correct Choice:     B  Justification:     What-if Scenario Analysis: ... Simulation involves calculating multiple project durations with different set of activity assumptions. The most common technique is Monte Carlo Analysis Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 146
  22. 22. 11. Your project SPI is 0.86 and the management has recommended that you should fast- track the project. You agree with the management but warn them that fast-tracking could: A. Facilitate duration compression B. Increase risk C. Ensure activities are done in parallel which would normally be done in sequence D. Help shorten the project schedule without changing the project scope
  23. 23. 11. Your project SPI is 0.86 and the management has recommended that you should fast- track the project. You agree with the management but warn them that fast-tracking could: A. Facilitate duration compression B. Increase risk C. Ensure activities are done in parallel which would normally be done in sequence D. Help shorten the project schedule without changing the project scopeCorrect Choice:     B  Justification:     Fast Tracking can result in rework and increased riskReference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 146pmstudy.com comments: Since increase in risk is a negative outcome of fast-tracking, you shouldwarn your management about the increased risk. All the other options are benefits of fast-tracking.
  24. 24. 12. 12. In schedule development, you create a distribution of probable results for each activity and use it to calculate the distribution of probable results for the total project. The technique that you are using is:A. What-if Analysis B. Mathematical Analysis C. Monte Carlo Analysis D. Resource Leveling Heuristic
  25. 25. 12. In schedule development, you create a distribution of probable results for each activity and use it to calculate the distribution of probable results for the total project. The technique that you are using is:A. What-if Analysis B. Mathematical Analysis C. Monte Carlo Analysis D. Resource Leveling HeuristicCorrect Choice:     C  Justification:     Simulation involves calculating multiple project durations with different sets ofactivity assumptions. The most common technique is called Monte Carlo Analysis, in which adistribution of probable results is defined for each activity and is used to calculate a distribution ofprobable results for the whole project.Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 146
  26. 26. 13. You are going to make a presentation on the project to the senior management. In this context, the difference of a milestone chart as compared with a bar chart when making presentations is that unlike bar charts, milestones:A. Show activity start and end dates B. Show dependencies among tasks C. Only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables, and not all the tasks D. Show supporting details
  27. 27. 13. You are going to make a presentation on the project to the senior management. In this context, the difference of a milestone chart as compared with a bar chart when making presentations is that unlike bar charts, milestones:A. Show activity start and end dates B. Show dependencies among tasks C. Only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables, and not all the tasks D. Show supporting details Correct Choice:     C   Justification:     Milestone charts (see Figure 6-10) are similar to bar charts, but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and key external interfaces. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 149
  28. 28. 14. Please refer to the figure below:If these three tasks (i.e. Task A, Task B, Task C) are not part of the critical path of a project, what is the PERT estimate for the duration of the project?A. 22.5 B. 10.33 C. 32 D. Cannot be determined
  29. 29. Correct Choice:     D  Justification:     Since the tasks are not on the critical path of the project, we cannot determinethe PERT estimate for the duration of the project. The PERT estimate can only be calculated forthe critical path of the project.Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
  30. 30. 15. In your project, you are in the process of creating an activity list. This should contain all the following EXCEPT: A. Activities that are not required as part of the project scope  B. Activities that are to be performed as part of the project  C. Activity identifiers and scope of work descriptions for each schedule activity  D. Activities that are required as part of the project scope 
  31. 31. 15. In your project, you are in the process of creating an activity list. This should contain all the following EXCEPT: A. Activities that are not required as part of the project scope  B. Activities that are to be performed as part of the project  C. Activity identifiers and scope of work descriptions for each schedule activity  D. Activities that are required as part of the project scope Correct Choice:     A  Justification:     The activity list does not include any schedule activities that are required aspart of the project scope.Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 129
  32. 32. 16. Since you are in the preliminary stages of your project, you estimate that your project will last one year. However, an optimistic scenario is that it will get over within six months and a pessimistic scenario is eighteen months. This kind of estimate is also called:A. Definitive   B. Capital Cost   C. Order of Magnitude   D. Feasibility 
  33. 33. 16. Since you are in the preliminary stages of your project, you estimate that your project will last one year. However, an optimistic scenario is that it will get over within six months and a pessimistic scenario is eighteen months. This kind of estimate is also called:A. Definitive   B. Capital Cost   C. Order of Magnitude   D. Feasibility Correct Choice:     C  Justification:     The classes of estimates and their accuracy % is as follows:* Definitive (+- 5%)* Capital Cost (+- 10% - 15%)* Appropriation ( +- 15% - 25%)* Feasibility (+_ 25% - 35 %)* Order of Magnitude ( > +- 35%)Reference: Project Management - A Systems Approach to Planning,Scheduling and Controlling, Page Number: 745
  34. 34. 17. If you are calculating an early start and early finish for each task, you are using: (choose the best answer)A. PERT   B. CPM   C. GERT   D. PDM 
  35. 35. 17. If you are calculating an early start and early finish for each task, you are using: (choose the best answer)A. PERT   B. CPM   C. GERT   D. PDM  Correct Choice:     B   Justification:     The critical path method calculates the theoretical early start and finish dates, and the late start and finish dates, for all schedule activities without regard for any resource limitations, by performing a forward pass analysis and a backward pass analysis through the project schedule network paths. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 145 pmstudy.com comments: Critical Path Method(CPM) calculates a single, deterministic early and late start and finish date for each activity based on specified, sequential network logic and a single duration estimate.
  36. 36. 18. Float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project finish date. It can also be called: A. Slack  B. Total Float  C. Path Float  D. Critical Path
  37. 37. 18. Float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project finish date. It can also be called: A. Slack  B. Total Float  C. Path Float  D. Critical PathCorrect Choice:     A  Justification:     Float is also called slackReference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 361
  38. 38. 19. An activity has an optimistic estimate of ten days, pessimistic estimate of sixteen days, and most likely estimate of thirteen days. Assuming a normal distribution, what is the probability that the task will be completed within 10 - 16 days?A. 99.99 % B. 99.73 % C. 95.46 % D. 68.26%
  39. 39. 19. An activity has an optimistic estimate of ten days, pessimistic estimate of sixteen days, and most likely estimate of thirteen days. Assuming a normal distribution, what is the probability that the task will be completed within 10 - 16 days?A. 99.99 % B. 99.73 % C. 95.46 % D. 68.26%Correct Choice:     B Justification:     Please refer to Diagram about 6 Sigma below:In a Normal Distribution, the PERT duration (also called mean)= (Pessimistic + 4* (Most Likely) + Optimistic)/6= (10 + 4 * 13 + 16)/6= 131 Standard Deviation (sigma)= (Pessimistic - Optimistic) / 6= (16 - 10) / 6=1So, if the task has to be completed within 10 days and 16 days, then the probability of completion within thetimeframe is 99.73%(3 sigma) as shown in the exhibit.Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above; pmstudy.com comments: To know more about 6 sigmacalculations, please refer to Project Management - A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling andControlling, Page 693 - Page 695
  40. 40. 20. Critical chain is a schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. The critical chain combines deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Initially, the project schedule network diagram is built using non-conservative estimates for activity durations within the schedule model, with required dependencies and defined constraints as inputs. The critical path is then calculated. After the critical path is identified, resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule result is determined. The resulting schedule often has an altered critical path.The critical chain method adds non-work schedule activities to maintain focus on the planned activity durations, also referred to as:A. Duration BuffersB. Resource LevelingC. Reverse Resource LevelingD. Crashing
  41. 41. 20. Critical chain is a schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. The critical chain combines deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Initially, the project schedule network diagram is built using non-conservative estimates for activity durations within the schedule model, with required dependencies and defined constraints as inputs. The critical path is then calculated. After the critical path is identified, resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule result is determined. The resulting schedule often has an altered critical path.The critical chain method adds non-work schedule activities to maintain focus on the planned activity durations, also referred to as:A. Duration BuffersB. Resource LevelingC. Reverse Resource LevelingD. Crashing Correct Choice:     A  Justification:     The critical chain method adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to maintain focus on the planned activity durations. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 147
  42. 42. 21. If the number of critical paths in the project increases, but the duration of the project remains the same, what should the project manager do?A. Perform crashing to complete project on timeB. Fast track the projectC. Perform additional risk planningD. Decrease the scope of the project
  43. 43. 21. If the number of critical paths in the project increases, but the duration of the project remains the same, what should the project manager do?A. Perform crashing to complete project on timeB. Fast track the projectC. Perform additional risk planningD. Decrease the scope of the projectCorrect Choice:     C  Justification:      If the number of critical paths increases for the project, delay in any one of thecritical paths has the potential for delaying the project. So, the risk of the project (in meeting theproject schedule) increases. Hence additional risk planning has to be performed.Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
  44. 44. 22. You got news that because of bad weather, your shipment has got delayed by two weeks. What should be the FIRST step that you should take?   A. Fast track the project to ensure that the project schedule is not delayed.  B. Review the performance reports to determine which planned dates have not been met, and the impact on the critical path.  C. Try to get additional supplies from an alternate location as soon as possible.  D. Take corrective action to minimize the impact of the delay.
  45. 45. 22. You got news that because of bad weather, your shipment has got delayed by two weeks. What should be the FIRST step that you should take?   A. Fast track the project to ensure that the project schedule is not delayed.  B. Review the performance reports to determine which planned dates have not been met, and the impact on the critical path.  C. Try to get additional supplies from an alternate location as soon as possible.  D. Take corrective action to minimize the impact of the delay.Correct Choice:     B  Justification:     Performance reports provide information on schedule performance, such aswhich planned dates have been met and which have not.Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 153pmstudy comments: Since performance reports are used to track project execution, they shouldbe consulted first when there is a delay in the project to determine the potential impacts
  46. 46. 23. A planning package is a:A. Unit of the project plan  B. Unit of the scope management plan C. WBS component below the control account  D. Template used for the project
  47. 47. 23. A planning package is a:A. Unit of the project plan  B. Unit of the scope management plan C. WBS component below the control account  D. Template used for the projectCorrect Choice:     C  Justification:     A planning package is a WBS component below the control account, butabove the work packageReference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 129
  48. 48. 24. Please refer to this diagram:What is the slack of task G?A. 0 weeksB. 1 weekC. -1 weekD. Cannot be determined
  49. 49. Correct Choice:     A  Justification:     Justification: Please refer to this diagram:START -> G -> I -> C -> D -> END: 23 lies on the critical path. So, slack of task G = 0Reference: pmstudy.com notes as mentioned above
  50. 50. 25. In your project, you realize the importance of determining the start and finish dates for project activities. If the project start or end dates are not realistic, then the project may not be completed on time. This is done as part of:A. Activity Sequencing B. Activity Duration Estimating C. Schedule Development D. Activity Definition
  51. 51. 25. In your project, you realize the importance of determining the start and finish dates for project activities. If the project start or end dates are not realistic, then the project may not be completed on time. This is done as part of:A. Activity Sequencing B. Activity Duration Estimating C. Schedule Development D. Activity DefinitionCorrect Choice:     C  Justification:     Project Schedule Development, an iterative process, determines the planned startand finish dates for project activities. Schedule development can require that duration estimates andresource estimates are reviewed and revised to create an approved project scheduleReference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 143
  52. 52. 26. You have taken information on project scope and resources and then developed duration of activities for input to schedules. Since there was very limited information about the project, you used the actual duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating future activity. What should you do next?A. Use diagramming techniques like GERT and Systems Dynamics B. Calculate theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all project activities C. Use Standardized Networks to expedite preparation of Project Network Diagrams D. Subdivide project work packages into smaller more manageable components for better management control
  53. 53. 26. You have taken information on project scope and resources and then developed duration of activities for input to schedules. Since there was very limited information about the project, you used the actual duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating future activity. What should you do next?A. Use diagramming techniques like GERT and Systems Dynamics B. Calculate theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all project activities C. Use Standardized Networks to expedite preparation of Project Network Diagrams D. Subdivide project work packages into smaller more manageable components for better management controlCorrect Choice:     B  Justification:     Analogous Duration Estimating means using the actual duration of a previoussimilar schedule activity as the basis for estimating the duration of a future schedule activity - this isdone as part of Activity Duration Estimating.Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 141pmstudy.com comments: Activity Duration Estimating will be followed by Schedule Development -one tool and technique used is Schedule Network Analysis (which involves calculating theoreticalearly and late start and finish dates : Refer PMBOK Page 145) - so, correct choice is # 2
  54. 54. 27. Activity definition involves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed to produce the deliverables and sub-deliverables identified in the work breakdown structure (WBS). All the following statements about the activity list produced as an output from activity definition are true EXCEPT: A. The activity list must include all activities that will be performed on the project  B. The activity list may include some activities that are not required as part of the project  C. The activity list should include descriptions of each activity to ensure that the project team members will understand how the work is to be done  D. The activity list is used in the schedule model and is a component of the project management plan
  55. 55. 27. Activity definition involves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed to produce the deliverables and sub-deliverables identified in the work breakdown structure (WBS). All the following statements about the activity list produced as an output from activity definition are true EXCEPT: A. The activity list must include all activities that will be performed on the project  B. The activity list may include some activities that are not required as part of the project  C. The activity list should include descriptions of each activity to ensure that the project team members will understand how the work is to be done  D. The activity list is used in the schedule model and is a component of the project management plan Correct Choice:     B   Justification:     The activity list does not include any schedule activities that are required as part of the project scope. Reference: PMBOK Third Edition, Page Number: 129 pmstudy.com comments: Option 2 refers to "Gold Plating" or adding features not mentioned in the project scope - this practice is not recommended by PMI
  56. 56. Wrap UpConference Number: 547-941-6414 or 866-547-8978Passcode: Leader – 844306338, Participant – 3706708316 Cost Management October 23 2:00pm EST Presenter: https:// (PMBOK Chapters 7) www.rooms.hp.com/attend/default.aspx?key=EHKYYTFNGJ Participant: https:// www.rooms.hp.com/attend/default.aspx?key=EPBJY3JEZ4

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