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# P scheduling

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### P scheduling

1. 1. Project Scheduling Project Scheduling Scheduling = Planning + timeWhy construction schedule? Knowing activities timing and project completion time Having resources available on site in the correct time Making corrective actions if schedule shows that the plan will result in late completion Assessing the value of penalties on project late completion Determining project cash flow Evaluating effect of change orders on project completion Determining value pf project delay and the responsible parties 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 2 1
2. 2. Project SchedulingThe Critical Path Method (CPM) Most Widely used method for project scheduling Calculates the minimum completion time for a project Calculates activities timings Computer programs use CPM , handle large projects Forward path Backward path Float calculations Critical activates 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 3 Project SchedulingThe Critical Path Method (CPM)What creates activities’ durations? Consider the example of traveling to Alex. Travel to Cairo 2 hours at 10 AM Meeting for 2 hours Travel to Alex 3 hrs Meeting for 2 hrs staring at 6 PM 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 4 2
3. 3. Project Scheduling1. CPM for Activity on Arrows ETi LTi ETj LTj x i j dxForward path Backward path ET for the first node = 0 LT for the last node = its ET ETj = ETi + dx LTi = LTj - dx ESx = ETi LFx = LTj EFx = ESx + dx LSx = LFx - dx 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 5 Project Scheduling1. CPM for Activity on Arrows ES = ETi ETj LF = LTj ES EF=ES+d Total Float d ES Total Float LS=LF-d LF d d Free Float (FF) Total time available for the activity = LF - ES TF = LF – EF = LS – ES FF = ETj – ETi – d = smallest ES (of succeeding act.) – EF (of current act.) 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 6 3
4. 4. Project Scheduling1. CPM for Activity on Arrows Critical activities & critical path Activities with TF = 0 are critical These activities need special attention during construction A set of critical activities for a critical path the critical path is a continuous path of critical activities The critical path is the longest one in the network More than critical path can be formed 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 7 Project Scheduling1. CPM for Activity on Arrows Example 5 B d1 3 A C E1 3 9 11 d=3 4 5 D d2 6 7 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 8 4
5. 5. Project Scheduling 2. CPM for Activity on Nodes (PDM) ESi EFi ESj EFj overlapij i (di) j (dj) LSi LFi LSj LFjForward path Backward path ES for the first Activity = 0 LF for the last activity = its EF EFi = ESi + di LSj = LFj - dj ESj = EFi - overlapij LFi = LSj + overlapij 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 9 Project Scheduling 2. PDM Example B (3) A (3) C (4) E (5) D (6) 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 10 5
6. 6. Project Scheduling3. Time-Scaled Diagram Activities are drawn to scale according to its duration Relationships are represented using Horizontal or vertical lines It can be drawn using calendar dates Activities times can read directly form the chart It can be used to calculate resource usage or cost 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 3 1 A C 3 4 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 11 Project Scheduling3. Time-Scaled Diagram A (3 days) has no predecessor B (3 days), C (4 days), & D (6 days) depend on A E ((5 days) depends on B, C, and D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B 3 A C E 3 4 5 D 6 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 12 6
7. 7. Project SchedulingBar Chart (Gantt Chart) Time versus activity chart Simple representation and easy to read Early bar chart Activity d=3 A ES = 0 d=3 TF=3 ES=3 B d=4 TF=2 C ES=3 d=6 D ES=3 d=5 E ES=9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Time 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 13 Project SchedulingBar Chart (Gantt Chart) It can use calendar dates It can be drawn using late start times Late start bar chart Activity d=3 A LF=3 d=3 LF=9 B d=4 C LF=9 d=6 D LF=9 d=5 E LF=14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Time 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 14 7
8. 8. Project SchedulingBar Chart (Gantt Chart) It can be used for resource and cost analysis 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 15 Project SchedulingCriticism to Network Techniques Duration driven schedule Assumes resources are available Can not deal with project deadline Ignore project cost (minimum cost) Use deterministic durations 24/09/2006 Emad Elbeltagi 16 8