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  1. 1. Project Management Functions• Planning – (what are we aiming for and why?)• Organizing – (what’s involved and why?)• Motivation – (what motivates people to do their best work?)• Directing – (who decides what and when?)• Control – (who judges results and by what standards?)Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 1King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  2. 2. Leading (Directing)• Motivation and leadership• Teamworking and CreativitySpring 2008, Engineering Administration 2King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  3. 3. Motivation• Motivation tries to determine what gets people to work and what gets them to work better• Motivation affects the production and quality of workSpring 2008, Engineering Administration 3King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  4. 4. Motivation (Continue)• Lack of motivation creates several problems such as: – people do not feel like doing the job or – it gets done but not very well, – people get to work late, – miss deadlines, ..., etc.• Many factors affect why people take jobs and the weightings applied to each factor vary with each individual• Psychology has much to offer in the way of motivational theories.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 4King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  5. 5. Maslow and Herzberg Self- H ygiene factor 1. A ch ievem en t fulfillment 2. recogn ition 3. th e w ork itself H igh er N eeds (type of w ork)(Psych ological) S elf-e xpressio n 4. takin g respon sibility (level of respon sibility) 5. ch an ce to advan ce R eco gnit io n, respect (prom otion ) S a fet y, she lter, w arm th, etc 1. W orkin g condition s M otivators 2. S alaryB asic N eeds 3. R elation s w ith superiors (P h ysical) P hysio lo g ica l needs, fo o d, clo thing etc. w orkin g con dition 4. C om pan y policy M aslo w ’s hierarchy o f need s H erzberg Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 5 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  6. 6. John W. Hunt• Hunt proposed that: – predicting people’s behavior is achieved by considering their personal goals. – People can be motivated by creating an environment in which their goals can be satisfied while the goals of the organization are also satisfied.• Individual’s goals are: – comfort, structure, relationships, recognition and status, power, autonomy, creativity, and growth.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 6King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  7. 7. John W. Hunt (Continue)• Hunt assumes people’s needs are not constant – in contrast of Herzberg and Maslow theories.• Example: A graduate engineer will have a goal of finding a job that offer good training. Later this goal will be better salary, then the goal is to find flexible job…etc. Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 7 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  8. 8. Motivation in Practice• Practically, motivation is a complex process-what motive one person might not motivate another.• Managers have to try to build up what their subordinates are likely to like and then establish what it is that drive them.• Questioning subordinates is unlikely to provide reliable answers in short period of time.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 8King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  9. 9. Leadership• Leadership is the way in which managers influence people to meet the objectives of the organization.• Authority should be achieved through respect so that people do what is needed because they themselves appreciate the need.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 9King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  10. 10. Leadership (Cont.)• Establishing leadership is difficult. It is a management skill that can be developed with time.• People have to be motivated through sound leadership in order to meet the company’s objectives.• There is no correct way to lead, but there are different styles depending on the circumstances.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 10King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  11. 11. Leading Styles1. Authoritarian: – Allowing the subordinate no role in the decision- making2. Democratic: – Where the decision making is delegated to the subordinates3. Task-centered leader: – The leader is concerned with the task to be accomplished and sees subordinates as tools that are used to get the job done.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 11King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  12. 12. Leading Styles4. The employs-centered leader: – Leader is mainly concerned with the welfare and well-being of subordinates, with the view that if the subordinates are cared for them the task will be achieved through their commitment.5. Theory X: – “old-fashioned” managers believe that people dislike work and must be forced to work and that people prefer to be told what to do.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 12King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  13. 13. Leading Styles5. Theory Y: – (opposite of X), – people exercise self-direction and self- control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. – People will actively look for responsibility and use their imagination and creativity to solve problems.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 13King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  14. 14. Factors of Leadership styles1. For Managers: – personalities, background knowledge, experience, value system, confidence in employees.2. For subordinate: – knowledge, experience, working as groups, their feeling of independence or to be guided.3. The situation: – company’s expectation, culture, constraints (time, confidentiality, …etc). Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 14 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  15. 15. Teamworking and Creativity• Teamworking• Optimization Team Composition-Theory• Managing the Creative Process• Problems Solving• Methods to Improve Solution Generation• Decision Making (Proposal Evaluation)Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 15King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  16. 16. Teamworking• Teamworking is a life long habit for mankind: – In family, – at school, and – at work we work in teams.• Teams are often formed to solve problems and so needed to be creative.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 16King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  17. 17. Teamworking (Cont.)• Teamworking brings true holisom. – Holistic team is an entity whose whole is greater than the sum of its parts. – This means that the group acquires new abilities that the individuals could not have provided along (i.e. colonies of ants).• Mangers need to know: – how to bring about the benefits of holistic teams – and has to avoid forming ineffective teams (team composition). Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 17 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  18. 18. Optimization Team Composition- Theory• Team theories describe how to form the best possible team.• A good theory must describe not only how to select individuals, but has to select groups that will work effectively together “team balancing”.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 18King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  19. 19. 1. Simple Theories• In most models, separate team roles are identified: – could be functions that the team requires for success such as leading, or – they may be attributes of people that are helpful in teamworking such as respect for colleagues.• Each theory describes a way of identifying the attributes a given individual can bring to the team (through questionnaire). Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 19 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  20. 20. 1. Simple Theories (Cont.)• These theories do not provide: – experimental evidence to support their prediction – nor do they provide a way of measuring the role each individual take in team with accuracy.• They are only concerned about: – having the required expertise in the team – and not concerned about team homogeneity.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 20King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  21. 21. 2. Advanced Team Theory (Belbin Theory)• Belbin’s research was centered on the performance of teams at a management game called “Teamopoly”.• Belbin uses proven psychological classifications to generate his team roles.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 21King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  22. 22. Team-role developed by Belbin1. Company worker (CW); – carries out agreed plans systematically and efficiently.2. Chairman (CH); – control the way in which a team moves toward the group objectives.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 22King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  23. 23. Team-role developed by Belbin3. Sharper (SH); – shapes the way team effort is applied (discussion, outcome of group activities).4. Plant (PL); – advances new ideas and strategies to major issues.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 23King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  24. 24. Team-role developed by Belbin5. Resources Investigator (RI); – explores and reports on ideas, – development and resources outside the group.6. Monitor Evaluation (ME); – analysis problems, – evaluates ideas and – suggestions.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 24King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  25. 25. Team-role developed by Belbin7. Team Worker (TW); – supports members in their strengths and underpinning members in their shortcomings.8. Completer Finisher (CF); – ensures that the team is protected against mistakes in aspects which need high attention.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 25King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  26. 26. 2. Belbin Theory (Cont.)• A questionnaire-based analysis of team roles are used to produce a numerical rating for each individual.• A successful team is a balanced team, – one in which all roles are present and unbalanced team will be a losing team.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 26King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  27. 27. 2. Belbin Theory (Cont.)• This theory was experimentally verified, therefore, it has found its way into the practice of many organizations that use it for forming teams (i.e. Board of Directors).Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 27King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  28. 28. 2. Belbin Theory (Cont.)• Belbin also produced a list of dangerous group combinations: – as a contradiction to the proposal that the best way to form a team is to pick one expert or more in each field required.• Belbin theory takes into account availability of expertise and team homogeneity.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 28King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  29. 29. Managing the Creative Process• Contemporary creativity comes from group-work.• Modern problem solving is an organized, rational approach aimed at producing the required breakthroughs at the times they are needed.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 29King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  30. 30. Problems Solving• Problem solving is the gateway to progress• Several techniques exist. Any good technique should include the following steps in some form or another. – STEP1: Examination – STEP2: Proposal – STEP3: Implications – STEP4: Implementation Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 30 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  31. 31. STEP1: Examination• In order to solve a problem one should be clear on what the problem actually is.• Clarity of thought and the application of rationality are the keys to being accurate in identifying the real problem.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 31King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  32. 32. STEP2: Proposal• A good problem solving depends on being able to identify the best solution to the problems.• It is usually difficult to arrive at the best solution straight way.• The ideal approach is to produce lots of different ideas and then weigh one against another to find the best one.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 32King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  33. 33. STEP3: Implications• Usually a proposal designed to solve a problem will have implications.• Some implications are significant enough to render a proposal unworkable.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 33King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  34. 34. STEP4: Implementation• No solution to a problem is complete without due considerations being given to implementation of the solution.• Implementing a solution to a problem is a management issue. A plan must be produced for implementing the solution.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 34King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  35. 35. Methods to Improve Solution Generation• To generate ideas needed for the proposal phase of the problem-solving process, two techniques are presented: – (1) Brainstorming, – (2) lateral thinking.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 35King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  36. 36. (1) Brainstorming• The technique aims at generating a big number of solutions to a given problem. In most cases only a few of the generated ideas will be used to solve the problem.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 36King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  37. 37. (1) Brainstorming (Cont.)• The technique relies on having a group seeing the problem with fresh eyes and using their imagination to produce solutions.• During a brainstorming session, ideas should be generated free from rational constraints. After the session a rational approach is used for the selection of a good solution.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 37King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  38. 38. (2) Lateral Thinking:• In vertical thinking one starts with known conditions and then applies steps of reasoning to reach a goal (engineers use this).• In lateral thinking one has an inspiration and sees a new angle of the problem and the solution is accordingly. It is a brainstorming on your own.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 38King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  39. 39. Decision Making (Proposal Evaluation)• Good decision making is a key to success• Decision making as a process can be divided into independent, elemental sections and optimizing each one. – I Decision-making Techniques – II Collecting – III Start with ObjectivesSpring 2008, Engineering Administration 39King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  40. 40. (I) Decision-making Techniques• Objectives facilitate clear and corporately beneficial decision-making at all levels.• Rational decision making is impossible with conflicting objectives.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 40King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  41. 41. (II) Collecting• Whenever a decision is to be made there are always options.• Data collecting aims at: (1) collecting sufficient amount of facts about each option (2) ensuring that all options are known.• Quantity and accuracy of data collected has to be consistent with the measurable effects of the decision. Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 41 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  42. 42. (III) Start with Objectives• Occasional wrong decision is an inevitable consequence of making decisions. People should learn from mistakes.• Some of the evaluative techniques that may be used to assist the process are: – (1) Search for Extrema – (2) Penalty Costs – (3) Matrix Assessment – (4) Overriding Constraints – (5) Use of Math – (6) Consequence Analysis Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 42 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  43. 43. (1) Search for Extrema• Sometimes objectives may require the decision maker to aim at extremum (max. or min.) of some variables. (e.g. min. possible time ≥ C.P. plans)• Extrema are poor ways to specify objectives and lead to unclear choice (What project duration is acceptable should be the question)• Sometimes they are appropriate and they are used in common practice.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 43King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  44. 44. (2) Penalty Costs• All decision come not only with potential benefits but also with costs associated with the decision being wrong (Penalty costs)• The Risk associated with the decision usually decided taking it or not.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 44King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  45. 45. (3) Matrix Assessment• A very simple and effective way of choosing among alternatives when many different attributes have to be weighted against each other (see Fig.)Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 45King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  46. 46. (3) Matrix Assessment M a x. P last ic- P last ic- A ttribute G la ss S ilic a sco re N3 N2 C larit y 20 19 17 15 17 L o w co st 20 5 15 10 18 W e ig ht 20 2 19 13 16R e fract ive inde x 15 14 8 9 12 unifo rm it y 10 10 6 8 6 S tabilit y 15 15 11 13 11 T otal 100 65 76 68 80Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 46King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  47. 47. (4) Overriding Constraints• In some cases overriding constraints significantly reduce the number of options available. Such constraints should first be identified before the beginning of the process: – (i.e. upgrading an existing camera model without changing the original body shell-space constraint). Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 47 King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  48. 48. (5) Use of Math• A good technique to use to arrive at a decision (unbiased and dependable). Some times it allows for probability evaluation in the process of decisions making.Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 48King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani
  49. 49. (6) Consequence Analysis• In some cases the consequence of a decision interacts with the issue upon which the decision is made.• Anticipating all consequences possible of a given action is not usually possible so efforts should be directed in the most important directions.• For the use when the consequence of a decision is so essential in the selection process (price reduction decision).Spring 2008, Engineering Administration 49King Saud University Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani