Pupil Voice


Published on

A presentation about Pupil Voice in Education

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pupil Voice

  1. 1. What do we know about successfully harnessing student voice in schools? <ul><li>Cass Unit Seminar DCSF, Sanctuary Buildings, Great Smith Street, London </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 23rd, 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.00pm – 4.00pm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor Michael Fielding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Education, University of London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr Bethan Morgan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Associate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Presentation Structure <ul><li>Section 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Overview: Michael Fielding </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Findings from the TLRP Network and Related Projects: Donald McIntyre & Bethan Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 </li></ul><ul><li>The Way Forward: all presenters </li></ul>
  3. 3. Recent Contexts <ul><li>Changing view of childhood </li></ul><ul><li>UN Convention on Rights of the Child 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>School improvement </li></ul><ul><li>OfSTED Inspection framework </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship + Healthy Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Commissioner </li></ul><ul><li>Work of Professor Jean Rudduck </li></ul><ul><li>19-21 C educational imaginary (David Hargreaves)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Factory  personalised education for all </li></ul><ul><li>Segregated roles  overlapping roles </li></ul><ul><li>Producer led  user led </li></ul>
  4. 4. Immediate Contexts <ul><li>Government Legalisation / Initiatives / Research </li></ul><ul><li>Every Child Matters </li></ul><ul><li>Personalised Learning: The East Sussex Project </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Real Decision Making? School Councils in Action’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Working Together: Giving children and young people a say’ </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs / Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Esm é e Fairbairn / Carnegie YPI </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Research + Publications </li></ul><ul><li>ESRC TLRP ‘Consulting Pupils about T&L’ </li></ul><ul><li>ESRC Seminars ‘Engaging Critically with PV’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative work of e.g. Fielding, McIntyre, Rudduck, Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>Journal Special Issues e.g. Discourse, Educational Action Research, Forum, Improving Schools, International Journal for Leadership in Education + 2007 International Handbook (Thiessen + Cook-Sather) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Personalised Learning Charles Leadbeater <ul><li>‘ The foundation of a personalised education system </li></ul><ul><li>would be to encourage children, from an early age and </li></ul><ul><li>across all backgrounds, to become more involved in </li></ul><ul><li>making decisions about what they would like to </li></ul><ul><li>learn and how .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Choice : users as consumers within institutions, not just between them e.g. how you learn, what you learn, how you are assessed </li></ul><ul><li>Voice : users as citizens and co-designers of services e.g. Students as Researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals as advisers, advocates, solution assemblers, brokers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Requests for evidence of impact of consultation on pupil achievement ... <ul><li>‘ These [requests] cannot be responsibly met before we are sure that schools understand the rationale for developing pupil voice and are implementing it in reasonable ways’ [i.e. not just quick fix surveys in the last few seconds of the lesson] </li></ul><ul><li>‘ There is evidence of the potential of consultation to strengthen pupils’ commitment to learning , but not the kind of proof i.e. a direct cause and effect link – that government has wanted: it is clear that successful implementation depends very much on the culture of the classroom and school and that the approach to consultation and its impact are, therefore, likely to show considerable variation across schools .’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Nevertheless, in settings where consultation is thoughtfully developed the signs are encouraging .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 13 Rudduck & McIntyre (2007 forthcoming) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Range of Student Voice Activities <ul><li>Peer support </li></ul><ul><li> Buddying systems  Peer tutoring </li></ul><ul><li> Peer teaching  Circle time </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational change structures </li></ul><ul><li> School councils  Student governors </li></ul><ul><li> Students on appointment panels </li></ul><ul><li> School Improvement Plans e.g. draw-and-write </li></ul><ul><li> Healthy Schools  OfSTED  ECM </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with T & L </li></ul><ul><li> Lead-learners  Classroom observation  AfL </li></ul><ul><li> Student co-researchers  student-led learning walks </li></ul><ul><li> ‘ Students-as-researchers’  Dept development plans </li></ul><ul><li> Evaluating work units  Classroom consultation </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5 perspectives on education Exposes + challenges deep assumptions. Offers alternatives, often rooted in radical traditions Challenges the system to Transcend it Radical Different slant on existing assumptions, often inspired by new developments in business Unsettles the system to Renew it Renewal Adjustments to existing system in the light of feedback Champions the system to Embed it Reaffirm Rejection of the market + return to holistic emphasis Unsettles the system to Retrieve it Restorative Return to ‘proven’ methods + arrangements perceived to promote social mobility Unsettles the system to Correct it Corrective
  9. 9. Student Involvement Typology(1)‏ Pupil / student attitude surveys Samples of pupil / student work Individual performance data Pupils / Students as Data Source Appointment panels Team agenda + pupil perceptions AfL lead learners Pupils / Students as Active Respondents Joint review of rewards system CPGS ‘History Dudettes’ Developing independent learning Pupils / Students as Co-Enquirers Low level bullying Is playground buddying system working? What Makes a Good Lesson? Pupils / Students as Knowledge Creators Staff + pupil / student Learning Walks Develop unit /department research lesson Co-plan Maths Lesson Pupils / Students + Adults as Co-authors Joint Enquiry School Unit / Team Classroom
  10. 10. Student Involvement Typology (2)‏ PISA survey Samples of pupil / student work SATs + Exam data Pupils / Students as Data Source Advocate youth parliaments / student councils Consultation on 14-19 learner entitlement Pupils / Students as Active Respondent Welsh Children’s Commissioner – ‘Funky Dragon’ School-led anti-bullying week Pupils / Students as C o-Enquirers OBESSU Organising Bureau of European School Students Unions ESSA English Secondary School Students’ Association Portsmouth SV conference  ‘respect’ project Pupils / Students as Knowledge Creators Pupils / Students + Adults as Co-authors Joint Enquiry International National Local Authority
  11. 11. Student / pupil voice & Students <ul><li>Develop capacity to reflect on learning  greater control over how you learn + how to improve it </li></ul><ul><li>Respected, listened to + taken seriously  positive sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Views make a difference to how things are done in school + classroom  change agentry </li></ul><ul><li>New capacity to take on roles + responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of belonging - more positive membership of class + school </li></ul><ul><li>See teachers differently </li></ul>
  12. 12. Student / pupil voice & Teachers <ul><li>Being positively surprised by students  more open perception of young people’s capabilities and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing + enjoying a different way of working with students  renewed sense of excitement in teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Positive agenda for improvement  insights that help their professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing positive changes as a result of student voice engagement </li></ul>
  13. 13. Student / pupil voice & Schools <ul><li>A practical agenda for change that teachers + pupils can identify with </li></ul><ul><li>Better engagement with school and school learning (students + staff)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced mutual respect, trust + recognition between pupils and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Improved teaching + learning </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a distinct ethos and identity for the school </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the school as a learning organisation / community </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ongoing challenges (1) <ul><li>Current context - teacher tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between responsiveness to pupils and the nationally imposed agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures of time + curriculum coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of institutional support </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond pockets of isolated practice (role of LA + national + international networks)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism or democratic agency? e.g. “You’re no good, no bullet points, too much thinking, not thick enough files” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ongoing challenges (2) <ul><li>Using students? </li></ul><ul><li>Refusing the role of ‘quality assurance donkeys’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ventriloquising predictable outcomes / teacher approved ideas </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Beating up’ teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>National context over time … </li></ul><ul><li>Class, race, gender, inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Ability grouping +labelling (inc. institutional)‏ </li></ul>
  16. 16. Taking ‘student voice’ seriously (1)‏ <ul><li>Purposes + Values </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this work being encouraged / resisted ? </li></ul><ul><li>In whose interests ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it connect with policy contexts ? </li></ul><ul><li>Power + Control </li></ul><ul><li>Who is allowed to speak ? About what ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who gets heard ? By whom ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is listening ? Why ? </li></ul><ul><li>Capacities + Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>How are the appropriate skills developed? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people regard / care for each other ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they taking it seriously ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do some people feel threatened ? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Taking ‘student voice’ seriously (2)‏ <ul><li>Systems + structures </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate systems and structures ? </li></ul><ul><li>Public /communal , as well as smaller, more intimate spaces to make meaning of recommendations and decide what should be done ? </li></ul><ul><li>Action + Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>What actually happens ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who decides? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has responsibility for embedding the change? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we hold ourselves / each other to account ? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the change monitored and evaluated ? By whom ? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 2 <ul><ul><li>Findings from the TLRP Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professor Donald McIntyre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr Bethan Morgan </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Strategies for Classroom Consultation <ul><li>The seductive attractiveness of ‘informal’ or ‘embedded’ consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the conditions for trusting dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and power </li></ul><ul><li>Direct consultation, indirect consultation, or pupils as researchers </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of focusing on the particular </li></ul><ul><li>The danger of working with selected pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding principles </li></ul>
  20. 20. What kinds of teachers and teaching do pupils want? <ul><li>Research studies reveal a very high degree of consensus across pupils, irrespective of age-group, previous success in school, subject or research study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the centrality of teacher-pupil relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humanity, fairness, consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respect and sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive attitude and enthusiasm </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. What kinds of teachers and teaching do pupils want? <ul><li>Four central and consistent characteristics of pupils’ preferred teaching approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meaningful learning, making connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoiding tedium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>togetherness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a measure of autonomy </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. What do pupils say about their own teachers? <ul><li>Pupils take consultation very seriously </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to accentuate the positive </li></ul><ul><li>They are also ready to identify unhelpful practices </li></ul><ul><li>They suggest modifications, use contrasts, and suggest constructive alternatives </li></ul>
  23. 23. What do pupils say about the social conditions for their classroom learning? <ul><li>‘ A cacophony of competing voices’*: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp contrast between the consensus about preferred teaching approaches and the strong differences in classroom experiences, even in the same classrooms – differentiation and polarisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The destructive impact of ability labelling and social class differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-group relations </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of control </li></ul><ul><li>* Arnot & Reay (2004) </li></ul>
  24. 24. What do pupils say about being consulted? <ul><li>The great potential of pupil consultation </li></ul><ul><li>The central importance of teachers’ authentic engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts on different methods of consultation </li></ul><ul><li>The contribution of consultation to learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teaching practices that really help learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>greater enjoyment leading to better learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improved teacher-pupil relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Teachers’ responses to what pupils say <ul><li>Why have teachers not consulted pupils previously? </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers impressed by seriousness, insightfulness and constructive nature of pupil comments </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher criteria in assessing pupil comments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>educational effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practicality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>representativeness </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Teachers’ responses to what pupils say <ul><li>Teachers found little difficulty in identifying a package of pupil ideas that they could use </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, teachers varied: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in their practical situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in their confidence and expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The most powerful constraint seems to be perceived conflict between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsiveness to pupils and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the nationally imposed agenda </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The potential impact of consultation on pupils and teachers <ul><li>Pupils: </li></ul><ul><li>Changed attitudes to school and to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Changed perceptions of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger sense of school and class membership </li></ul><ul><li>Developing capacity to reflect on learning </li></ul><ul><li>New capacity to take on new roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Positive impact on sense of self </li></ul>
  28. 28. The potential impact of consultation on pupils and teachers <ul><li>Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>More open perception of young people’s capabilities and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to change thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Renewed sense of excitement in teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Practical agenda for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher - pupil relationships: </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced mutual respect, trust and recognition </li></ul>
  29. 29. Reservations, anxieties and constraints <ul><li>From the teacher perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures of time and curriculum coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of institutional support </li></ul><ul><li>Varied views of the pupils being taught </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns about possible criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing individual and group perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>From the pupil perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty about the acceptability of criticising teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Believing that consultation is for all pupils </li></ul>
  30. 30. Conditions for Developing Classroom Consultation <ul><li>Conditions in the classroom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trust, respect, recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditions in the school: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An explicit policy commitment within the School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy by institutional leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling structures and practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A school culture that values and listens to all staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A culture of enquiry among teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A tradition of pupil involvement in decisions </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Section 3 <ul><ul><li>Ways Forward . . . </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Positive developments (1)‏ <ul><li>Evidence of reciprocal benefits to students + staff at classroom / team / dept / school levels </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging synergy of national policies across departments and sectors driven by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) public service reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) need to engage wide range of young people in political + social renewal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadly positive response of professionals , though concerns about other antagonistic aspects of policy (test + performance culture, time demands, curriculum pressure )‏ </li></ul>
  33. 33. Positive developments (2)‏ <ul><li>Building momentum across the country with certain areas developing significant expertise </li></ul><ul><li>A number of universities involved in high quality ‘development & research’ work with schools, LAs and government organisations </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs, Foundations and NFP organisations supporting a range of work </li></ul><ul><li>Fledgling evidence of radical, prefigurative work against the grain  ‘practical conscience of democratic way of life’ </li></ul>
  34. 34. Creative Renewal and Radical Change within the same educational system <ul><li>Creative renewal </li></ul><ul><li> SSAT work on Student Voice </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Inspiring schools’ network </li></ul><ul><li>Radical change  future practice now </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Centre for Radical State Education, London Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Current practice e.g.  The Wroxham School, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire  Bishops Park College, Clacton, Essex </li></ul><ul><li>Rich legacy of our radical state traditions e.g. </li></ul><ul><li> Alex Bloom - St George-in-the-East, Stepney, London </li></ul><ul><li> Teddy O’Neill - Prestolee Elementary School, Stoneclough </li></ul><ul><li>Key role of HEI e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities of Birmingham, Cambridge, East Anglia, Leicester, London, Manchester, Nottingham, and Sussex + Manchester Metropolitan and Open Universities </li></ul>
  35. 35. Support + sustainability Classrooms + Departments <ul><li>Classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Support & Sustainability through </li></ul><ul><li>Staff (including TAs) pairing / mutual support + observation network within dept and / or within the school </li></ul><ul><li>Support from T&L / SV post-holder </li></ul><ul><li>Department / Team / Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental commitment through e.g. space at Dept meetings / dept publicity + bulletins / internal cover arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Depts encouraged + resourced centrally </li></ul>
  36. 36. Support + sustainability School <ul><li>SLT member with SV responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>SV embedded at multiple levels and sites of formal and informal learning </li></ul><ul><li>SV systemically integrated into ongoing development and review processes </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy + modelling by school leaders </li></ul><ul><li>School culture that values + listens to all staff </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of enquiry / research amongst teachers </li></ul>
  37. 37. Support + sustainability Local Authority + Networks <ul><li>LA development plan </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of advisers who can make connections with other agendas + priorities </li></ul><ul><li>AST for SV + ‘link teachers’ in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent structures + cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Good admin + communication infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Co-constructed SV strategy + capacity-building approach </li></ul><ul><li>Link to research base + external practice </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit synergy + inclusive coherence </li></ul>
  38. 38. Support + sustainability National policy <ul><li>Replace debilitating performance pressure with enabling, inclusive accountability e.g. Bishops Park College, Clacton ‘Research Forum’ model </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to encourage more emergent models of curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher voices - treat teachers as agents , not just objects, of public service reform </li></ul><ul><li>Value and support the role of prefigurative practice (future practice now)‏ </li></ul>
  39. 39. Future research (1) Classroom practice + student voice: teaching realities, teacher capacities <ul><li>Building on earlier, small scale research </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. McIntyre & Pedder, Arnot & Reay)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>How do teachers incorporate, sustain and make effective use of high-quality organic approaches to SV in their own classrooms ? </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to listen to all pupils. How do these approaches address issues of social class, gender, race and inclusion ? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Future research (2) Leadership, SV and the systemic revisioning + renewal of schools <ul><li>Working with a range of volunteer </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Leadership Teams </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nature and development of high quality systemic support for SV that operates organically at multiple levels in diverse contexts? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Future research (3) External support for student voice <ul><li>Given the increasing importance of schools’ external networks and support systems in developing and sustaining creative approaches to education </li></ul><ul><li>What can we learn from successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LA practice ( e.g. Bedfordshire, Portsmouth)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University engagement ( e.g. Cambridge, Sussex)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary sector ( e.g. SCUK)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>that will enable SV to be embedded and sustained in regional + national networks? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Future research (4) Future practice now <ul><li>Researching past and current examples of prefigurative practice , i.e. highly creative practice significantly ahead of their time </li></ul><ul><li>What can be learned from these inevitably small number of instances about </li></ul><ul><li>different ways of working </li></ul><ul><li>the role and effect of such exemplars on mainstream educational practice ? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Selected References <ul><li>Arnot, M., McIntyre, D., Pedder, D. & Reay, D. (2004) Consultation in the classroom: Developing dialogue about teaching and learning, (Cambridge, Pearson). </li></ul><ul><li>Fielding, M. (2004) ‘New Wave’ student voice and the renewal </li></ul><ul><li>of civic society London Review of Education Vol.2 No.3 pp 197-217. </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan, B. (2007) Consulting Pupils about Classroom Teaching and Learning: policy, practice and response in one school. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudduck, J. & McIntyre, D. (2007 forthcoming) Improving Learning through Consulting Pupils. London: Routledge. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Contact Details <ul><li>Professor Michael Fielding </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Bethan Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>