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Inclusion, the individual and the environment


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an introduction to the special educational needs and disability duties

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Inclusion, the individual and the environment

  1. 1. Session 1 Inclusion, the individual and the environment
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Trainees will: </li></ul><ul><li>understand how the terms ‘inclusion’, ‘special educational needs’ (SEN) and ‘disability’ are used </li></ul><ul><li>understand of the context provided by the statutory and regulatory framework for SEN and disability </li></ul><ul><li>be aware of the nature of duties on schools and their staff in relation to SEN and disability </li></ul><ul><li>know of key recent documents on SEN and disability and where to refer to them </li></ul><ul><li>understand the difference between ‘within-child’ and ‘environmental’ models of disability. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Feelings associated with: <ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion Exclusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>valued rejected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at ease upset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>content angry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>happy frustrated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> useful unhappy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> hard done by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>useless </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The principles of an inclusive education service <ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion is a process by which schools, local authorities and others develop their cultures, policies and practices to include pupils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With the right training, strategies and support nearly all children with SEN and disabilities can be included successfully in mainstream education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An inclusive education service offers excellence and choice and incorporates the views of parents and children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The interests of all pupils must be safeguarded </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Defining inclusion <ul><li>“ Inclusion in education involves the processes of increasing the participation of students in, and reducing their exclusion from, the cultures, curricula and communities of local schools. Inclusion is concerned with the learning participation of all students vulnerable to exclusionary pressures, not only those with impairments or categorised as having SEN. Inclusion is concerned with improving schools for staff as well as for students.” (CSIE 2002) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Thinking about inclusion <ul><li>What are the differences between the Salamanca and CSIE descriptions of inclusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the CSIE description of inclusion say </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Inclusion is concerned with improving schools for staff as well as for students’? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Activity 3: Learning outcomes <ul><li>Trainees will understand: </li></ul><ul><li>the relevance of the Every Child Matters outcomes to inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>the importance of high expectations within the national curriculum inclusion statement. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Every Child Matters outcomes <ul><ul><ul><li> Being healthy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Staying safe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Enjoying and achieving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> M aking a positive contribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Achieving economic well-being </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The national curriculum inclusion principles <ul><li>Teachers must not ignore the three principles of inclusion in their planning and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The statement gives substantial flexibility to allow teachers to match their plans to the needs of all pupils </li></ul>
  10. 10. Expectations <ul><li>Why is the first part of the national curriculum inclusion statement so important? </li></ul><ul><li>(You can include reasons not mentioned in the film) </li></ul>Click on box to start film clip.
  11. 11. Adam’s days <ul><li>“ After following Adam for 18 months, we gave up specifying his traits as the explanations of his behaviour and began talking instead about what happened around him daily that seemed to organise his moments as an LD person.” </li></ul><ul><li>(McDermott 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of Mc Dermott’s findings when we think about planning learning opportunities for pupils with SEN and/or disability? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adam’s Days <ul><li>“ The point of this story is that a person’s competence is </li></ul><ul><li>interwoven with the context and cannot be viewed as </li></ul><ul><li>separated. This case points to the importance of </li></ul><ul><li>recognising learning as being different in different </li></ul><ul><li>institutional practices. The child learns in the realising </li></ul><ul><li>of institutional practices in interaction with other </li></ul><ul><li>persons. Neither the child nor the institutionalised </li></ul><ul><li>activity/practice in itself create learning or learning </li></ul><ul><li>problems.” (Hedegaarde 2001) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The environment and the individual <ul><li>Corbett suggests that we should work to ensure that: </li></ul><ul><li>no one voice be allowed to dominate discussions </li></ul><ul><li>an ever-expanding space be allowed to ‘accommodate new voices which have remained silent or unheard in the clamour of status’. (Corbett 1996) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Involvement in planning <ul><li>Think of an example of planning for the learning of a pupil with SEN and/or disability. Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which professional or other groups, including the child and their parent/carer, were involved in deciding on the action to take? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who had most influence in the decision-making? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was the process negotiated so that everyone had a say? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>were efforts made to ‘expand the space’ to people who might find it hard to join in? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Similarities <ul><li>What are the similarities between the </li></ul><ul><li>national curriculum inclusion statement </li></ul><ul><li>and the ICF approaches to addressing </li></ul><ul><li>issues in relation to disability and SEN? </li></ul>
  16. 16. The SEN framework <ul><li>Legislation, regulations and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Makes provision to meet SEN </li></ul><ul><li>Includes what schools provide from their delegated budgets and what local authorities provide from their centrally retained funds </li></ul><ul><li>In England and Wales, Part 4 of the Education Act 1996 is the principal legislation, amended by the SEN and Disability Act, 2001 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Special educational needs <ul><li>“ Children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision to be made for them. Children have a learning difficulty if they have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age or have a disability.” (DfES 2001: the revised SEN Code of Practice) </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils with SEN are said to require something ‘additional to’ or ‘different from’ that offered to other pupils </li></ul>
  18. 18. SEN framework SEN and Disability Act 2001
  19. 19. Planning duties <ul><li>Planning duties in the DDA require schools and local authorities to </li></ul><ul><li>plan to increase access to education for disabled pupils. The </li></ul><ul><li>duties cover three aspects of planned improvements in access: </li></ul><ul><li>improvements in access to the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>improvements to the physical environment of the school to increase access to education and associated services </li></ul><ul><li>improvements in the provision of information in a range of formats for disabled pupils. </li></ul>
  20. 20. SEN arrangements Planning duties SEN and Disability Act 2001
  21. 21. Disability discrimination duties <ul><li>Disability discrimination duties in the DDA provide protection from discrimination for disabled pupils in schools. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Definition of disability <ul><li>The DDA defines a disabled person as someone who has ‘a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on his or her ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities’ </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or mental impairment includes sensory impairments and also hidden impairments. In the DDA ‘substantial’ means ‘more than minor or trivial’. ‘Long-term’ means a year or more. </li></ul>
  23. 23. SEN arrangements Planning duties Disability Discrimination duties SEN and Disability Act 2001
  24. 24. Protection from discrimination Who and what are covered? Current and prospective disabled pupils Every school and every aspect of school life: admissions, education and associated services, exclusions The ‘responsible body’ for the school
  25. 25. Protection from discrimination <ul><li>Two key duties </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible bodies : </li></ul><ul><li>must not treat disabled pupils less favourably </li></ul><ul><li>must make reasonable adjustments for disabled pupils </li></ul>
  26. 26. Every aspect of school life: - admissions - education and associated services - exclusions
  27. 27. Every school: - maintained, independent - mainstream, special - nursery, primary, secondary, including school VIth forms - community, voluntary, foundation or a city academy
  28. 28. SENCOs <ul><li>SENCOs have responsibilities at individual pupil and whole school level. They may take charge of budgeting, resource allocation, timetables and also work with individual pupils </li></ul><ul><li>They often advise, appraise and train staff, and liaise with other professionals </li></ul>
  29. 29. Routes to support <ul><li>Your tutor and your mentor are the first contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils can often tell you what works best for them </li></ul><ul><li>Parents and carers can give valuable insights </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum leaders can help with subject learning and SEN/disability issues </li></ul>
  30. 30. Routes to support <ul><li>BECTa ( hosts discussion groups on many areas of SEN </li></ul><ul><li>The TDA Behaviour4Learning site is designed to support trainee teachers </li></ul><ul><li>The SENCO can advise you and help you learn from specialists like educational psychologists and therapists </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Training Resource Bank (TTRB) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Support Network http:// / </li></ul>