quot;Children grow to fill the space we create for themquot;.

           Negotiating Educational Boundaries and
         ...
Enablement is about being helped to
achieve something that could not be
achieved at all without aid or without
great perso...
UNESCO             Wenger      ECM
To learn to        Meaning     Enjoying and
know                           achieving

T...
Pedagogy: Some components of learning?

                                       Learning
                                  ...
Jose Marti
               1853-1895


                            Lev Semenovich
                               Vygotsky
 ...
There is nothing more difficult to
             take in hand, more perilous
              to conduct or more uncertain in
...
FEAR: This is a reaction that can occur when an awareness of imminent but
  incidental change takes place.

THREAT: This i...
FEAR: This is a reaction that can occur when an awareness of imminent but
  incidental change takes place.

THREAT: This i...
anxiety from staff about a possible negative

    impact on national test and examination results;
    concerns about ins...
anxiety from staff about a possible negative

    impact on national test and examination results;
    concerns about ins...
+            + Incentives     +                     +                  =
Vision       Skills                          Reso...
detailed planning linked to rigorous self-evaluation;
clear systems, timescales and criteria for evaluating
impact involvi...
detailed planning linked to rigorous self-evaluation;
clear systems, timescales and criteria for evaluating
impact involvi...
ICT and Attainment: A review of the research literature
Cox et al (2003) for BECTA and DfES
... word processing is still n...
TTA model of ICT
               Accuracy                         Provisionality
                                Feature 5:...
Technology and school improvement: reducing
social inequity with technology?
Hollingworth et al BECTA 2008

• technology p...
Josie Marti : Educational Principles
                     Lay Education

                     Science and Technical Educat...
Josie Marti: A false concept of public education
Comments about The US
                        The schools here – with the...
“the use of technology to support curriculum-based
learning in schools often situates learners in a
passive role in the pr...
Pedagogy: Some components of learning?

                                            Learning
                             ...
Learning can lead development:

a) Social Interaction
  child <–> adult : child <–>child


b) Cultural Tools mediating psy...
The Zone of
Proximal
Development
Activity Theory

 Distinguishes between action and activity

 Internalisation : cultural reproduction

 Externalisation: h...
Pedagogy: Some components of learning?

                                               Learning
                          ...
The metropolitan commons – what citizens produce- the style
of life, the joy of the street, co-operation and reciprocal he...
The metropolitan commons – what citizens produce- the style
of life, the joy of the street, co-operation and reciprocal he...
Metropolitan commons          Positive Externality
Liberation of singularities   Precaritisation
education and social
English
policy appears to give parents
the role of educators whilst teachers are
encouraged to be ca...
Issues of Equity: The Digital Divide in the community
The DfES document states that 80% of learners now
have access to tec...
Issues of Equity: The Digital Divide in the community
The DfES document states that 80% of learners now
have access to tec...
The Committee concludes
that the implementation of
the national curriculum and
the guidance from the
strategies have turne...
More than half of children under the age of 16 have their own
television sets at home. Young people in the UK spend more t...
The report stresses that British society has an
increasing ‘risk averse' culture in which young people
are denied opportun...
Economic and social changes are understood
to significantly alter the experience of
childhood.

we cannot assume the exist...
Rojek discusses the development of
                              ‘neat capitalism’ in which
                              ...
Translation: quot;The Bush Plan: It will
take away from you the morning
kiss, the hug at the end of the school
day, and [y...
“The NUT is concerned that there exists in the
minds of some pupils and parents a belief that a
teacher has little or no a...
‘NQT (name removed), who teaches in a secondary
school in London, said:

“As an NQT I found the most difficult thing was t...
”Our methods of dealing with children, as has been pointed out, are based
on tradition. And our tradition was autocratic. ...
• a critique of rewards, sanctions and the
appropriate use of praise,
• natural and logical consequences as applied to
cla...
‘Social Interest’ is the expression of our capacity
                to give and take, one’s feeling of belonging to
      ...
Extrinsic rewards do play a important role in social organisations
including schools where they reinforce whole school pol...
Pedagogy: Some components of learning?
                Metropolitan commons                         Social Interest
      ...
Etienne Wenger
Communities of practice are groups of people who
share a concern or a passion for something they do
and lea...
Etienne Wenger
Communities of practice are groups of people who
share a concern or a passion for something they do
and lea...
Etienne Wenger
Communities of practice are groups of people who
share a concern or a passion for something they do
and lea...
Etienne Wenger
Communities of practice are groups of people who
share a concern or a passion for something they do
and lea...
Etienne Wenger
Communities of practice are groups of people who
share a concern or a passion for something they do
and lea...
Etienne Wenger
Communities of practice appear to be
concerned with movement of novices
from the periphery to the centre oc...
Towards a Post Crunch Pedagogy....
                Metropolitan commons                              Social Interest
     ...
High morale

                                                                                            Wider supportive ...
Boundaries M B V6
Boundaries M B V6
Boundaries M B V6
Boundaries M B V6
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Boundaries M B V6

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Mike Blamires' keynote presentation at #PELC09

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Boundaries M B V6

  1. 1. quot;Children grow to fill the space we create for themquot;. Negotiating Educational Boundaries and Creating Common Spaces for Learning
  2. 2. Enablement is about being helped to achieve something that could not be achieved at all without aid or without great personal effort. An individual may be enabled to learn something, say something, do something, create something, go somewhere or join in some activity. Enabling technology is not just about access, it is about engagement and inclusion. Blamires 2000
  3. 3. UNESCO Wenger ECM To learn to Meaning Enjoying and know achieving To learn to do Doing Achieving economic well being To learn to live Belonging Making a together positive contribution To learn to be Becoming Being healthy, Being safe
  4. 4. Pedagogy: Some components of learning? Learning as belonging community Learning as doing practice Learning identity Learning meaning as becoming Learning as experience Components of a social model of learning (Etienne Wenger 1997)
  5. 5. Jose Marti 1853-1895 Lev Semenovich Vygotsky 1896-1934 Alexei Nikolaevich Leont'ev 1903-1979 Alfred Adler 1870-1937 Antonio Negri 1933- Etienne Wenger 1952-
  6. 6. There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct or more uncertain in its success than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Machiavelli, N. (1532). The Prince. Translated by Bull, G. (1981) London: Penguin
  7. 7. FEAR: This is a reaction that can occur when an awareness of imminent but incidental change takes place. THREAT: This is a stronger reaction than fear because the change is seen as imminent but comprehensive. It can challenge your confidence in yourself as a learner. ANXIETY: This reaction occurs when you become concerned that the change that is about to take place involves areas that are beyond your control or outside the range of skills that you have to deal with change. AGGRESSIVENESS : This response is defensive and may occur when someone’s perception of ‘self’ is under threat. HOSTILITY: This represents a continued aggressive response. It may be a reaction to prevent new learning from taking place.
  8. 8. FEAR: This is a reaction that can occur when an awareness of imminent but incidental change takes place. THREAT: This is a stronger reaction than fear because the change is seen as imminent but comprehensive. It can challenge your confidence in yourself as a learner. ANXIETY: This reaction occurs when you become concerned that the change that is about to take place involves areas that are beyond your control or outside the range of skills that you have to deal with change. AGGRESSIVENESS : This response is defensive and may occur when someone’s perception of ‘self’ is under threat. HOSTILITY: This represents a continued aggressive response. It may be a reaction to prevent new learning from taking place.
  9. 9. anxiety from staff about a possible negative  impact on national test and examination results; concerns about inspectors’ attitudes to  innovation; uncertainty about longer-term finance and  resources; concerns about the reluctance or inability of  staff to implement change; possible resistance to change among governors,  parents and the local community. Curriculum innovation in schools (2008)
  10. 10. anxiety from staff about a possible negative  impact on national test and examination results; concerns about inspectors’ attitudes to  innovation; uncertainty about longer-term finance and  resources; concerns about the reluctance or inability of  staff to implement change; possible resistance to change among governors,  parents and the local community. Curriculum innovation in schools (2008)
  11. 11. + + Incentives + + = Vision Skills Resources Action Plan Change + Incentives + + = Confusion Skills Resources Action Plan + Incentives + + = Vision Resources Action Plan Anxiety = Resistance + + + Vision Skills Resources Action Plan + + Incentives + = Frustration Vision Skills Action Plan + + Incentives + = Treadmill Vision Skills Resources Thousand (2000) adapted from Knoster, T. (1991)
  12. 12. detailed planning linked to rigorous self-evaluation; clear systems, timescales and criteria for evaluating impact involving a wide range of stakeholders; carefully designed professional development programmes for staff to implement the new approaches. ...The most successful schools based their reforms on considerable background research into theories of learning and different ways of approaching the curriculum. Curriculum innovation in schools (2008)
  13. 13. detailed planning linked to rigorous self-evaluation; clear systems, timescales and criteria for evaluating impact involving a wide range of stakeholders; carefully designed professional development programmes for staff to implement the new approaches. ...The most successful schools based their reforms on considerable background research into theories of learning and different ways of approaching the curriculum. Curriculum innovation in schools (2008)
  14. 14. ICT and Attainment: A review of the research literature Cox et al (2003) for BECTA and DfES ... word processing is still not fully embedded, or used effectively, in many primary school classrooms in the UK. In part this is because many teachers and parents continue to think of word processing as a desktop-publishing tool or printer, which has marginalised its greater potential as a means of drafting and revising, despite this model having been proposed in curriculum documents for many years. The Case for a National Writing Project Andrews (2008) One interviewee in the report itself quot;saw an undue emphasis on drafting and re-drafting, which is now part of the orthodoxy in the teaching of writing in schools; with not enough focus on composition and the early stages of the writing process, like marshalling ideas and arranging them.
  15. 15. TTA model of ICT Accuracy Provisionality Feature 5: Feature 1: Automation Feedback Feature 6: Feature 2: Capacity ? Feature 7: Feature 3: Range Feature 4: What features are ‘we’ aware of and what can be harnessed for learning?
  16. 16. Technology and school improvement: reducing social inequity with technology? Hollingworth et al BECTA 2008 • technology provides an essential tool in facilitating change •The use of technology was often accompanied by a more applied and project-based approach •The visual and interactive nature of ICT was seen to raise motivation among ‘disengaged’ learners, • monitor pupils’ achievement, progress and attendance • multi-faceted approach to communication with parents,
  17. 17. Josie Marti : Educational Principles Lay Education Science and Technical Education until basic education becomes scientific – until a child is taught to manage those elements of the earth which are to nourish him when he is a man Education for Life To make the student fit for his or her historic moment and circumstance Education must have national content The education of the sons of these smaller countries in a country of an opposite character and superior wealth, can bring the student into a fatal opposition to his native country
  18. 18. Josie Marti: A false concept of public education Comments about The US The schools here – with their beautiful books, their grand System in 1860s(?) facilities, their outward order, their pencils and slates, their grammars and geography books – have become workshops for memorising •where children languish year after year in sterile spelling lessons, maps and calculations, •where corporal punishment is authorised and practiced, • where time is wasted copying words and listing mountains and rivers; •where the live elements of the world we inhabit or how the human creature can improve himself and serve in the inevitable contact with those elements, are never taught, •where teacher and pupils do not share that warmth of affection which enlarges to giant size the student’s desire and aptitude for learning …. comforting and gladdening their paths in life’s unavoidable spells of dejection.
  19. 19. “the use of technology to support curriculum-based learning in schools often situates learners in a passive role in the process of knowledge creation, which represents a very different position from learners’ use of technology outside of education. The pedagogical approach most commonly adopted is unlikely to encourage the range of competencies increasingly demanded by employers and the economy more generally. ... potentially presents risks of further dislocation between learners’ informal experiences at home and those in education, possibly at the expense of learners’ enthusiasm ” Harnessing Technology BECTA 2008 P 69
  20. 20. Pedagogy: Some components of learning? Learning as belonging Identity projects community Learning Enhanced Citizenship as doing Vocational educati0n practice Learning identity Learning meaning as becoming Learning as experience Components of a social model of learning (Etienne Wenger 1997)
  21. 21. Learning can lead development: a) Social Interaction child <–> adult : child <–>child b) Cultural Tools mediating psychological functioning eg numbering, counting, writing, diagrams, drawing, mnemonics c) ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development) Scaffolding may be vary not just in amount but also form eg contingency managing. feedback, instructing, questioning & cognitive structuring
  22. 22. The Zone of Proximal Development
  23. 23. Activity Theory Distinguishes between action and activity Internalisation : cultural reproduction Externalisation: harnessing tools to enable cultural transformation by the creation of instability, contradiction, innovation, questioning of authority
  24. 24. Pedagogy: Some components of learning? Learning as belonging Identity projects community Learning Enhanced Citizenship as doing Vocational educati0n practice Learning identity Activity Mediation Learning meaning Use of tools as becoming ZPD Learning as experience Components of a social model of learning (Etienne Wenger 1997)
  25. 25. The metropolitan commons – what citizens produce- the style of life, the joy of the street, co-operation and reciprocal help, enthusiasm, and the comfort of being together Positive Externality - an unpaid-for benefit enjoyed by others in society An example of a positive externality is the effect of a well-educated labour force on the productivity of a company. opportunity for the liberation of singularities, represented by the social expansion of new forms of cooperative and reticular communication ie web 2.0 Precaritisation: the threat to the the quality of working conditions and job satisfaction
  26. 26. The metropolitan commons – what citizens produce- the style of life, the joy of the street, co-operation and reciprocal help, enthusiasm, and the comfort of being together Positive Externality - an unpaid-for benefit enjoyed by others in society An example of a positive externality is the effect of a well-educated labour force on the productivity of a company. opportunity for the liberation of singularities, represented by the social expansion of new forms of cooperative and reticular communication ie web 2.0 Precaritisation: the threat to the the quality of working conditions and job satisfaction
  27. 27. Metropolitan commons Positive Externality Liberation of singularities Precaritisation
  28. 28. education and social English policy appears to give parents the role of educators whilst teachers are encouraged to be carers … Frank Ferudi (2003) ‘professionalising the management of  children's relationships, parenting and community attitudes weakens the ability of people to conduct their own affairs. Frank Ferudi
  29. 29. Issues of Equity: The Digital Divide in the community The DfES document states that 80% of learners now have access to technology at home with many having internet access. The advantages of this access are outlined as follows: “ICT is used as a means of enabling learning to take place more easily beyond the bounds of the formal school organisation and outside the school day – and of enhancing the quality of such experiences; and ICT capabilities are developed as key skills essential for participation in today’s society and economy.” DfES Fulfilling Potential 2003
  30. 30. Issues of Equity: The Digital Divide in the community The DfES document states that 80% of learners now have access to technology at home with many having internet access. The advantages.. “ICT is used as a means of enabling learning to take place more easily beyond the bounds of the formal school organisation and outside the school day – and of enhancing the quality of such experiences; and ICT capabilities are developed as key skills essential for participation in today’s society and economy.” DfES Fulfilling Potential 2003
  31. 31. The Committee concludes that the implementation of the national curriculum and the guidance from the strategies have turned schooling into quot;a franchise operation more dependent on a recipe handed down by Government rather than the exercise of professional expertise by teachersquot;.
  32. 32. More than half of children under the age of 16 have their own television sets at home. Young people in the UK spend more time watching television than anywhere in Europe. The licence children are given by their parents to get about independently has been dramatically constrained, most graphically illustrated in the proportion of 7 and 8 year-olds getting to school by themselves, which had declined from 80% to 9% (between 1971 and 1990). A study of German and English schoolchildren’s travel patterns found that nearly a third of English children in the survey were collected from school by car – almost four times the proportion of the same age group of German children. Three- quarters of German children walked home on their own after school, compared to only one third of the English children. No particular place to go? [2003] No Particular Place To Go: Children, young people and public space (2003) www.groundwork.org.uk
  33. 33. The report stresses that British society has an increasing ‘risk averse' culture in which young people are denied opportunities to identify and manage risk, and that there is a generational divide between parents/adults and young people in this area.
  34. 34. Economic and social changes are understood to significantly alter the experience of childhood. we cannot assume the existence of a universal childhood. Instead, the experience of childhood varies historically and geographically, and is shaped by the broader contours of society. This literature asserts that, in the face of economic, social and technological change, there have been qualitative shifts in the experience of childhood. David Buckingham describes as the “death of childhood”, others see these processes as creating new constructions of childhood in which children are positioned as active beings,
  35. 35. Rojek discusses the development of ‘neat capitalism’ in which corporations such as Virgin, Nike, Apple and Pepsi seek to position themselves as different from more traditional corporations in that they are more socially responsive, Neat schooling is a pedagogy develop closer relationships with based on: customers, and are concerned to Learning Beyond the Classroom make a difference in the world. The Unfinished Revolution Fast capitalism Thus, Virgin positions itself as “the people’s champion”;
  36. 36. Translation: quot;The Bush Plan: It will take away from you the morning kiss, the hug at the end of the school day, and [your] mischievous smile. Thank you, we already live in Free Cuba.quot;
  37. 37. “The NUT is concerned that there exists in the minds of some pupils and parents a belief that a teacher has little or no authority at present to discipline children. Some teachers too lack confidence in imposing reasonable sanctions on children who breach what is considered acceptable behaviour in schools. This contributes to the persistence of low level disruption and sometimes defiance.” National Union of Teachers 2005
  38. 38. ‘NQT (name removed), who teaches in a secondary school in London, said: “As an NQT I found the most difficult thing was trying to take an authoritative approach while being female and blond. I know it sounds weird, but when you‟re tackling behaviour issues with 15-year-old-boys who are physically much bigger than you it can be very intimidating. Often you have a male department head, and this doesn‟t really help as you‟re asking a man to help you reinforce a discipline matter - making you look inferior again.”‟ Association of Teachers and Lecturers report on behaviour 2006
  39. 39. ”Our methods of dealing with children, as has been pointed out, are based on tradition. And our tradition was autocratic. Every deficiency, every failure was traditionally considered a violation of demands and obligations not to be tolerated by the authorities who established them…. It is the autocratic tradition that prevents even the most liberal and democratic educator from realising that reward and punishment are outdated, Herbert Spencer suggested this a hundred years ago and many have done since. Many still believe that we have to exert force to influence children; when they misbehave. We have to „show‟ them, „teach them a lesson‟. Repeatedly “explain and advise” but at any rate not “let them get by with it” without punishment or retaliation. Many sincerely believe that these methods have educational value, nay, are essential in bringing up children and teaching them”. Dinkmeyer and Dreikurs (2000)P 118
  40. 40. • a critique of rewards, sanctions and the appropriate use of praise, • natural and logical consequences as applied to classroom rules, • the use of Time Out from peers and a democratic teaching style.
  41. 41. ‘Social Interest’ is the expression of our capacity to give and take, one’s feeling of belonging to others and one’s concern for the common welfare. The individual’s aim is significance and belonging. Adler emphasises a positive long term view of emotional and behavioural development that counters the short term authoritarianism of current public debate. Encouragement and discouragement are key concepts for Adlerians as they impact of the child’s courage to take responsibility for aspects of their life“ Compensation- overcoming weakness to find strength
  42. 42. Extrinsic rewards do play a important role in social organisations including schools where they reinforce whole school policy on behaviour. Chew (1998) asks that “if children are taught that every thing worth doing must be compensated, when are they to learn and feel the value of giving and helping?” (p 53) “Rewards usually are given by someone in a superior role to someone in an inferior position which is not a mutually respectful stance. They are often used as bribes which in the end teaches that nothing worthwhile is given freely. Rewards given by parents often come back to haunt them when children refuse to do anything unless they receive a tangible reward. The focus is removed from internal controls to external ones.”
  43. 43. Pedagogy: Some components of learning? Metropolitan commons Social Interest Positive Externality Learning Liberation of singularities as belonging Precaritisation Identity projects community Learning Enhanced Citizenship as doing Vocational educati0n Democratic Teaching practice Learning identity Activity Mediation Learning meaning Use of tools as becoming ZPD Encouragement Learning as experience Components of a social model of learning (After Wenger 1997)
  44. 44. Etienne Wenger Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. The boundaries of communities of practice can be stimulating places. Meaning is negotiated through participation and reification within or across a community of practice Reification of knowledge includes the codification of knowledge into a textbook or curriculum which in turn can be divided up into procedures that might be de-contextualised from participation and negotiation.
  45. 45. Etienne Wenger Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. The boundaries of communities of practice can be stimulating places. Meaning is negotiated through participation and reification within or across a community of practice Reification of knowledge includes the codification of knowledge into a textbook or curriculum which in turn can be divided up into procedures that might be de-contextualised from participation and negotiation.
  46. 46. Etienne Wenger Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. The boundaries of communities of practice can be stimulating places. Meaning is negotiated through participation and reification within or across a community of practice Reification of knowledge includes the codification of knowledge into a textbook or curriculum which in turn can be divided up into procedures that might be de-contextualised from participation and negotiation.
  47. 47. Etienne Wenger Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. The boundaries of communities of practice can be stimulating places. Meaning is negotiated through participation and reification within or across a community of practice Reification of knowledge includes the codification of knowledge into a textbook or curriculum which in turn can be divided up into procedures that might be de-contextualised from participation and negotiation.
  48. 48. Etienne Wenger Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. The boundaries of communities of practice can be stimulating places. Meaning is negotiated through participation and reification within or across a community of practice Reification of knowledge includes the codification of knowledge into a textbook or curriculum which in turn can be divided up into procedures that might be de-contextualised from participation and negotiation.
  49. 49. Etienne Wenger Communities of practice appear to be concerned with movement of novices from the periphery to the centre occupied by experienced masters of the given practice. It appears to ignore movement outward and in unexpected dimensions. Engestrom & Miettinen (1999) The crossing of new boundaries and the creation of new spaces for learning- as described in Externalisation
  50. 50. Towards a Post Crunch Pedagogy.... Metropolitan commons Social Interest Positive Externality Internalisation Learning Liberation of singularities as belonging Precaritisation Identity projects community Learning Enhanced Citizenship as doing Vocational educati0n practice Learning identity Activity Mediation Learning meaning Use of tools as becoming ZPD Externalisation Encouragement Learning Participation as experience Reification Components of a social model of learning (After Wenger 1997)
  51. 51. High morale Wider supportive network Believe systems Affection good behaviour policy Being female Good housing Secure early relationships Community School Higher Intelligence Family Individual Anti-bullying Policy High Living Stds Support for education Humour Strong academic Control Range of positive sport/leisure Strong non-academic Reflector/Problem SolverClear firm discipline Communication skills

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