Literacy program


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  • I did not add phonics or phonemic awareness in this presentation as this is for 5th grade, and these are not an issue for the vast majority of my students. If I were teaching K-3, or a class with many low readers or ELL students, I would add this piece of the process.
  • Students must know the meanings of a high percentage of words in a passage in order to achieve comprehension.
  • Background knowledge = schema Building vocabulary helps to construct meaning Comprehension strategies include re-reading, questioning, inferring, predictions, etc.
  • Fluency is one of the most important factors in comprehension. It is also one of the most difficult to remediate.
  • Students should not be “assigned” independent “free” reading for homework, but need to be motivated to do so.
  • Learning style inventories for both parents and students. This piece of information will allow me to better tailor the student’s curriculum to an area of interest. If the child is interested, he/she is more apt to engage. Types of formal and informal assessments will be covered later in the presentation.
  • Both reading and writing decrease teacher support and increase student independence the further down the chart they travel.
  • Many types of flexible grouping are necessary to meet the needs of all readers.
  • Fluency is an important part of comprehending text and is also one of the most difficult to correct. Specific comprehension strategies would include things like making connections, asking good questions, making inferences, visualization, summarization, literary techniques, etc. It is the hope that “book talks” will encourage students to read other texts and authors based on the recommendation of their peers.
  • We use the Rigby reading series which has a guided reading component with leveled books through W.
  • The teacher floats in and out of these groups completing observation rubrics of group dynamics and asking probing, critical questions. Literature notebooks are collected and graded through a rubric.
  • The Six Traits of Writing are ideas, voice, word choice, organization, conventions, and fluency. Students will “publish” one piece of writing each nine weeks period.
  • The most frequently used words will be taken from Fry’s list of high frequency words. Spelling units focus on different phonics rules. Each week students have 10 vocabulary words that follow a specific Greek or Latin root.
  • It is important to remember that standardized tests are only “snapshots” of student achievement. There are pros and cons to standardized tests.
  • Developmental rubric focuses on strengths and weaknesses and directs student growth. Summative rubric evaluates student products and performances.
  • Learning styles = verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
  • Students will fill out a submission form for each item chosen for the portfolio stating reasons for the submission. Students will also reflect on their progress and make goals for future work.
  • Interview students using the Funnel Approach (going from general questions to specific questions)
  • Literacy program

    1. 1. Balanced Literacy Program Mrs. Gross 5th Grade
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ The way a book is read- which is to say, </li></ul><ul><li>the qualities a reader brings to a book- </li></ul><ul><li>can have as much to do with its worth as anything the author puts into it.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Norman Cousins ~ </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Reading? <ul><li>Readers must integrate these facets automatically in order to make meaning from print </li></ul>Reading does NOT come naturally to all children…these skills must be deliberately taught.
    4. 4. Let’s Break It Down! Word Recognition Comprehension Fluency Motivation
    5. 5. What is Word Recognition? <ul><li>Identifying Words in Print </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing that certain letters make certain sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking apart and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness) </li></ul><ul><li>Applying knowledge to sound out words that are new to them (decoding) </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing words and spelling patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing the meaning of words instantly (vocabulary) </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is Comprehension? <ul><li>Constructing meaning from words </li></ul><ul><li>Using background knowledge to acquire meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Building vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how English language and print works </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of various types of text </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strategies for constructing meaning. </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is Fluency? <ul><li>Identifying words and making meaning so that reading is automatic and accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining a rate of reading fast enough to facilitate comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Using phrasing and expression so oral reading sounds like normal speech </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why is Motivation a Part of the Reading Process? <ul><li>If reading isn’t pleasurable or fulfilling, children won’t choose to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading is an active process, and students require practice to become fluent readers </li></ul><ul><li>Reading is a social act to be shared with others </li></ul><ul><li>There are a variety of purposes for reading, from enjoyment to gathering information </li></ul>
    9. 9. How Will All of These Important Components be Taught?
    10. 10. First Things First… <ul><li>Determine student readiness using formal and informal assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Determine student interest using interest inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Determine student learning styles using parent and student inventories </li></ul>
    11. 11. Sample Interest Inventory
    12. 12. Sample of a Learning Styles Inventory
    13. 13. What is a Balanced Literacy Program? <ul><li>Daily opportunities to participate in a variety of reading and writing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction that varies in the types of support given by the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction that varies in its purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Using a variety of texts to address the needs of all types of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment that is measured in several different ways </li></ul>
    14. 14. Components of a Balanced Literacy Classroom Spelling and Word Study Independent Writing Independent Reading Guided Writing Guided Reading Interactive Writing Shared Reading Modeled Writing Read Aloud
    15. 15. Types of Flexible Grouping for Reading Instruction <ul><li>Whole group (mini-lessons on specific reading strategies) </li></ul><ul><li>Small group (needs based) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability (guided reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest (literature circles) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual conferencing (specific needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading centers (varied reinforcement of literacy skills) </li></ul>
    16. 16. What Takes Place During Whole Group Reading? <ul><li>Read-aloud--teacher reads novel aloud to the class, modeling fluency and comprehension strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared reading--poetry readings or reader’s theatre are performed. Everyone is reading together to practice fluency! </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-lessons based on specific comprehension strategies are taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions or “book talks” are conducted about favorite books and/or authors. </li></ul>
    17. 17. A Group Performance during a “Poetry Jam”!
    18. 18. What Takes Place During Small Group Instruction? <ul><li>The teacher will meet with smaller groups of students who require reinforcement in the same area of literacy. </li></ul>
    19. 19. What Takes Place During Guided Reading? <ul><li>Groups are determined </li></ul><ul><li>by reading level. </li></ul><ul><li>Leveled readers are </li></ul><ul><li>used as text. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific skills </li></ul><ul><li>are targeted. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction is teacher-led. </li></ul>
    20. 20. What Takes Place During Literature Circles? <ul><li>Novels are based on student choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are assigned a role to complete for the discussion and take notes in a literature notebook. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions are student-led and teacher facilitated. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Examples of Literacy Centers <ul><li>Free Choice Silent Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Center </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Board </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary study </li></ul><ul><li>Word Study </li></ul>
    22. 22. What Takes Place During Writer’s Workshop? <ul><li>Modeled Writing--Teacher models specific writing techniques (based on Six Traits of Writing) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Writing--Class works together on piece of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Writing--small groups working on specific writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Writing--independent student works with one-on-one conferencing </li></ul>
    23. 23. What Takes Place During Spelling and Word Study? <ul><li>Phonics review </li></ul><ul><li>Most frequently used words </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes and suffixes </li></ul><ul><li>Greek and Latin roots </li></ul>
    24. 24. Sample Literacy Schedule Non-fiction Literacy (Social Studies) 2:15-3:20 Math/Science Lab 1:00-2:15 Lunch/Recess 12:00-1:00 Writer’s Workshop 11:15-11:55 Special Classes 10:25-11:10 Literature Circles 9:50-10:25 Guided Reading/Literacy Centers/Individual Conferencing 9:00-9:45 Whole Group Reading 8:45-9:00
    25. 25. What Types of Assessment Will be Utilized?
    26. 26. Examples of Standardized Testing <ul><li>ISTEP--state-wide test in the spring </li></ul><ul><li>EdPerformance--Internet-based testing conducted twice each school year to monitor growth </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPS--school-wide oral assessment done three times each school year to check fluency </li></ul><ul><li>STAR--computer test done three times each year to determine Accelerated Reader level </li></ul>
    27. 27. Examples of Authentic Performance Based Assessments <ul><li>Independent Research Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios--samples of student work over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Informed Professional Opinion--based on evidence gathered </li></ul><ul><li>Student Journals or Learning Logs </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Performance Based Assessments are scored using a rubric. </li></ul>
    28. 28. What is a Rubric and Why Use it to Grade Performance Based Assessments? <ul><li>Describes expectations of student work </li></ul><ul><li>Measures levels of performance proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Brings clarity to subjective grading </li></ul><ul><li>Uses specific criteria to grade student products </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to self-assess and peer-assess work </li></ul>
    29. 29. Sample Rubric for an Authentic Project
    30. 30. Independent Research Projects <ul><li>Promotes depth, not breadth of topic </li></ul><ul><li>Activities vary among the different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Students have some choice in project and end product </li></ul><ul><li>Students are given the scoring rubric before beginning the project </li></ul>
    31. 31. Sample Choice Board for an Independent Research Project
    32. 32. Why Use Portfolios? <ul><li>Work reflects goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to view progress </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages students to assess their own work </li></ul><ul><li>Gives teachers information on student growth </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students become independent learners </li></ul>
    33. 33. How is Evidence Gathered in Order to Make an Informed Professional Opinion? <ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotal Records or Log Books </li></ul><ul><li>One-on-one or Small Group Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul>
    34. 34. Examples of Observation Records
    35. 35. Fifth Grade Grading Scale <ul><li>94% and up A </li></ul><ul><li>85-93% B </li></ul><ul><li>75-84% C </li></ul><ul><li>65-74% D </li></ul><ul><li>* 80% is considered the minimum mastery of material </li></ul>
    36. 36. What Can You Do To Help? <ul><li>Check the reading calendar or web site for assignments to be certain your child is up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Read and discuss classroom novels with your child--just ask if you would like a copy sent home for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a reading role model--children who see their parents reading often become readers </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive reinforcement--the most critical aspect of reading is how the child feels about reading. </li></ul>
    37. 37. How to Make Your Home Literacy-Rich <ul><li>Give gift cards to bookstores as presents </li></ul><ul><li>Give your child a “book allowance” along with his regular allowance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent family trips to the library, and introduce your child to the librarian. </li></ul><ul><li>Subscribe to a magazine in an area in which your child is interested </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a place in your child’s room for books </li></ul><ul><li>Help your child develop a hobby, and find books about that hobby </li></ul><ul><li>Attend used book sales at libraries and other stores </li></ul><ul><li>Buy books for yourself, and let your child know that you do </li></ul><ul><li>Create a family newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapbook with your child allowing him to help with the journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Write in a journal yourself and allow your child to see you do this </li></ul>
    38. 38. Web Sites for Parents <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>This Reading is Fundamental site offers suggestions for parents to help their teenagers decide that reading is important to their lives. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>This adolescent literacy site offers resources for parents and educators of kids in grades 4-12. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Bibliographies <ul><li>Browning Schulman, M. (2006). Guided reading in grades 3-6. New York: Scholastic Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Coil, C. (2004). Standards -based activities and assessments for the differentiated classroom. Pieces of Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Coil, C. & Merritt, D. (2001) Solving the assessment puzzle piece by piece . Pieces of Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Diller, D. (2005). Practice with purpose: Literacy work stations for grades 3-6. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Graves, M., Juel, C., & Graves, B. (2007) Teaching reading in the 21st century. New York: Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Heacox, D . ( 2002) Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN : Free Spirit Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan, R. (2004, December 29). Creative ways to encourage students to Read. Retreived from </li></ul>