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14.2 Three Fields


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14.2 Three Fields

  1. 2. <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe the three causes for food production that was greater in quantity and quality and how they led to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what guilds are and the three step process to joining a guild. </li></ul><ul><li>Know about Medieval finances. </li></ul><ul><li>Know why towns became bigger and more important and what they’re effect was on the feudal system. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Three things start to happen in MA to help food production increase </li></ul><ul><li>First Thing --- Global Warming!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yep it can be a good thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>800-1300 Europe is warming up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No its not from smog from cars…but there was some smog (hint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyway it leads to longer growing season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Europe now can grow food </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Three things start to happen in MA to help food production increase </li></ul><ul><li>Second Thing --- Horsies!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxen were used for plowing for a long time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper than horses – Oxen can eat bad grain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diva horses needed the good stuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest problem was the harness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd biggest problem the cost of growing good grain </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. This is the original harness derived from the Roman design. Because of the placement of the top strap and that the pull lines were at the top, the harness had the unfortunate habit of choking the horse if it pulled too hard. The next-gen harness (the breast harness) was better but the breast strap could still ride up and choke the horse.
  5. 6. So along comes the horse collar. It fits around the horse’s head with the pull lines at the sides. This puts the pulling pressure on the shoulders and breast of the horse, and off its neck. The horse can now be used as a good farm implement.
  6. 8. <ul><li>Three things start to happen in MA to help food production increase </li></ul><ul><li>Third Thing --- The three-field system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to be there was only 2 fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You would farm one and leave the other fallow (to keep soil healthy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then some smart farmer (named Joe???) said, “hey, let’s use 3 fields” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One field had winter crop (wheat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd field had spring crop (oats, peas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd field was left fallow </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><ul><li>The first benefit of this system is that in a given year you were farming 2/3 of your land instead of just half. That means more food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second benefit is that the greater variety of food was better for people and increased their nutritional input. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third benefit is that you could grow crops like oats and barley that you could use to feed the diva horses, which in turn could be used for farming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The overall result of these three things was more food and better nutrition. Those result in more people since the land will feed more folks and they aren’t as likely to die. This is what happened in Europe. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>IMAGINE….. You are a peasant that is vistiting your cousin in England. You live in the great (ugh) country of France. Write a letter home to your momma and pappa, describing how the three field system works and how you and your family should start to use it… </li></ul><ul><li>½ to ¾ of a page </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Guilds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group that practices the same craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacksmiths, bakers, tailors, copper, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled “the market” – set prices, who could sell items, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you were not in the tailor guild you couldn’t sell clothes </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>How to become a guild </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st become apprentice – 5 to 9 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd become a journeyman (traveling) – worked for other masters (sharing ideas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally – choose your town, apply to local guild and then produce master piece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The advantage of the guild is that it created standards for its craft and also exercised quality control. If you weren’t good enough, you wouldn’t peddle your wares in the town </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Finances </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church didn’t allow Christians to charge interest on loans. This kinda discouraged lending any money at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish bankers, however, were not bound by this and would loan money. This was one of the few activities available to them since they were not allowed to own land, be in a guild, or do a number of other things. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jewish people in Europe, therefore, never entered into the feudal system and they formed the early banking entities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quite ironically, the vicious stereotype of Jews being greedy moneylenders and bankers was partially the result of the stereotype’s founders’ own discrimination. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Around this time, towns and cities started becoming important again. Europe’s population went from 30 million to 42 million between 1000 and 1150. They had to go somewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>As trade increased, the towns also became more important trade and production centers. </li></ul><ul><li>They thus gained in size and influence as people moved to them </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>The towns and cities weren’t pretty. They were tightly packed and smelly. Refuse (including human waste) were tossed out into the streets. People didn’t bathe. Houses were firetraps. </li></ul><ul><li>The towns also grew haphazardly according to trails, walking paths, and herd routes. There was no centralized city planning or grid layouts of streets. You can still this in old European cities where there seems to be no rationale behind street layouts. Observe: </li></ul>
  14. 16. New York City Paris Vs.
  15. 17. London
  16. 18. <ul><li>Copy down the chart at the bottom of page 362. You will be able to use this chart along with the chart on the crusades on your test. If you want you can this chart on the back of the crusade chart. </li></ul>