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  1. 1. Trade ,Towns, and Financial Revolution
  2. 2. <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe the three causes for food production increase in quantity and quality and how it was achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what guilds are and the three step process to joining a guild. </li></ul><ul><li>Know about Medieval finances. </li></ul><ul><li>Know why towns became bigger and more important and what they’re effect was on the feudal system. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>More food! Mmmmm… food. </li></ul><ul><li>3 things happen in the Middle Ages that increase food production. </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yep, it can be a good thing. From about 800-1300, Europe’s climate was warmer than usual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not sure why… it may be connected to greater solar activity. It certainly wasn’t because of cars, though I suppose the transportation of the day had their own emissions (STINKY!). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyway, the result--longer growing season, crops grown in northern Europe (normally too cold) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Horsies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming typically used oxen for plowing . They were cheaper to maintain than horses because they could survive off of poor quality grains and hay. Those diva horses were high maintenance and wanted better stuff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not that horses weren’t desirable. They were twice as fast as oxen . The other problem was the horse harness. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. This is the original harness derived from the Romans. Because of the placement of the top strap and that the pull lines were at the top, the harness had the unfortunate habit of choking the horse if it pulled too hard. The next-gen harness (the breast harness) was better but the breast strap could still ride up and choke the horse.
  6. 6. So along comes the horse collar . It fits around the horse’s head with the pull lines at the sides. This puts the pulling pressure on the shoulders and breast of the horse and off its neck. The horse can now be used as a good farm implement.
  7. 8. <ul><li>The three-field system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tradition form of farming, there would be two fields. In a given year, you’d farm one and leave the other fallow (to avoid exhausting the soil). The next year, you’d switch, farm the other field and leave the first fallow, etc . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then it occurred to somebody “hey lets use three fields instead”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You’d use one field for a winter crop such as wheat or rye, the second field for a spring crop of oats, barley, peas, or beans (legumes were good for returning nitrogen to the soil which grains plants take… not that they knew this), and then leave the third fallow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st benefit you were farming 2/3 of your land instead of just half. That means more food . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd benefit is that the greater variety of food increased peoples nutritional input. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd benefit grow crops of oats and barley which fed the diva horses , which in turn could be used for farming . </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><ul><li>The overall result of these three things was more food and better nutrition . Which led to increased population and healthier people . </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Trade increased </li></ul><ul><li>There were more trade routes opening up, but there was also more than this that led to trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Routes </li></ul><ul><li>Italy -Europe wanted Asian goods. Italian cities, Genoa, Pisa, Venice became huge trade centers </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades increased this trade, Italian ships brought back goods from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Europe-Viking ships/traders traveled to Constantinople to collect goods from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Flanders-area of Belgium, France, Netherlands, many came from England, France, Germany to meet and trade </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Guilds </li></ul><ul><li>people who practiced the same craft . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacksmith, baker, butcher, tailor, copper guild, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controlled wages , and prices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controlled who could sell the items in its town . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weren’t part of the tailor guild, you couldn’t sell clothes This was a legal rule, not just a custom. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>to be part of a guild: </li></ul><ul><li>1st became an apprentice . work under a master craftsman 5-9 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>2nd become a journeyman, travel to other places to work under other masters . </li></ul><ul><li>3rd choose your town, apply to the guild and produce a masterpiece </li></ul><ul><li>advantage of the guild is that it created standards and also exercised quality control . If you weren’t good enough, you wouldn’t peddle your wares in the town. </li></ul><ul><li>Fairs-trading in town “fair days” could get most goods there </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Finances </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Church didn’t allow Christians to charge interest on loans . This kinda discouraged lending any money at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish people, however, were not bound by this and would loan money . This was one of the few activities available to them since they were not allowed to own land, be in a guild, or do a number of other things. </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish people in Europe , therefore, never entered into the feudal system and they formed the early banking systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Quite ironically, the vicious stereotype of Jews being greedy moneylenders and bankers was partially the result of the stereotype’s founders’ own discrimination. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>towns and cities started becoming important again. Europe’s population went from 30 million to 42 million between 1000 and 1150 . They had to go somewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>trade increased, towns became important trade and production centers . </li></ul><ul><li>towns grew. </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs would run away to them becoming free also gaining economic freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>The townspeople also wanted rights from their feudal lords . They starting breaking away from the traditional feudal system. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>towns weren’t pretty. packed and smelly. Trash (including human waste) tossed out into the streets. People didn’t bathe. Houses were firetraps. </li></ul><ul><li>towns grew randomly by trails, walking paths, and herd routes . There was no centralized city planning or grid layouts of streets. You can still this in old European cities where there seems to be no rationale behind street layouts. Observe: </li></ul>
  15. 17. New York City Paris Vs.
  16. 18. London