Nutrition 101


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This presentation outlines basic nutritional information. It also discusses the pros and cons of various weight loss methods.

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Nutrition 101

  1. 1. Nutrition 101 Mastering the Basics Presented By Brian Ayers, CSCS Total Transformations, LLC
  2. 2. Macronutrients <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential & Nonessential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple & Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated, Unsaturated, Trans, Cholesterol </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Proteins <ul><li>Proteins are complex structures that consist of smaller molecules called amino acids, which are the building blocks of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential & Nonessential Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential amino acids cannot be manufactured by the body and must be taken in through the diet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonessential can be made in the body and/or taken in through the diet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A complete protein contains all of the essential amino acids, while an incomplete is missing one or more of the essential amino acids. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates provide a source of energy for the body. When taken in they are broken down into glucose and distributed into the blood stream for use all over the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple carbs are sugars, which are more rapidly absorbed into the blood stream causing insulin spikes to occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex carbs are the starches. These are more dense carbs that take longer to be absorbed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber – Also considered a carb, but isn’t broken down as readily. Comes in two forms soluble and insoluble </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fats <ul><li>The most concentrated source of energy and is found in both plant and animal sources. The body metabolizes fat aerobically. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated, Unsaturated, & Trans Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fats come from animal products and should be taken in in limited quantities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats are derived from plant sources and are known as the “good fats”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans fats are the man made through a chemical process. These are the worst fats and should be avoided. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Essential Fatty Acids (EFA’s) <ul><li>EFA’s are essential for optimum health and proper cell function. Cell membranes are made from these dietary fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Omega-3 & Omega-6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Omega fatty acids are some of the most important dietary fats. Omega-3 is found in cold water fish, olive oil, avocado, seeds, & nuts. Omega-6 is found mostly in vegetable oils. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to strive to keep a ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 4:1, however because most Americans’ diets include more vegetable oils the ratio in our diets is presently more like 20:1. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Truth About Diet Fads <ul><li>The Atkins & South Beach Diets </li></ul><ul><li>Starvation Diets </li></ul><ul><li>Diet Pills </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Loss Gels, Soups, Drinks, Electrical Devices, Etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Atkins & South Beach Diets <ul><li>High protein (Atkins also high fat) diets designed to cause weight loss through the elimination of carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible side effects & health risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration -Kidney Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney Stones -Artery Blockage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue -Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad body odor </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Starvation Diets <ul><li>Diets designed to cause weight loss due to a large calorie reduction. (Cabbage diet, Weight Watchers, Grapefruit Diet, Slim Fast) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible side effects & health risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle & Bone Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe Hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood Swings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased Metabolic Rate </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Diet Pills <ul><li>Include metabolic boosters, thermogenic stacks, caffeine, fat & carb blockers. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible side effects & health risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart Conditions - Headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Bp - Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GI Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervousness & Anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Weight Loss Gimmicks <ul><li>Include: soaps, electrical stimulators, gels, drinks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible side effects & health risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger From Disappointment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Results What So Ever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe Money Loss </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. So What’s The Answer? <ul><li>Weight management does not come from a bottle or box. It does not come from drastically cutting calories or removing one of the macronutrients from you diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight management does comes from maximizing your metabolism by combining proper exercise with well balanced meals eaten frequently throughout the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Once this is accomplished, your weight goals will fall into place and you will enjoy a much healthier and more energetic lifestyle. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Keeping a Nutrition Log <ul><li>Keeping a food log will help you make better choices and learn how your body works </li></ul><ul><li>Write down everything you eat even if it seems insignificant to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Write down the relative quantity of food eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>example: 1 medium potatoes or 1 cup of cereal </li></ul><ul><li>Record the time of each meal eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>Make notes of how you feel at the time when you eat and after meal times. </li></ul><ul><li>Record your exercise time, as it will influence meal changes. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example of a Bad Log <ul><li>Breakfast: Potatoes & eggs w/ Pam spray </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch: Salad w/chicken & dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Dinner: Tuna casserole </li></ul><ul><li>Snacks: Popcorn, Snickers, ? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why is that a Bad Log <ul><li>No meal times </li></ul><ul><li>No specific quantities </li></ul><ul><li>No fluid intake records </li></ul><ul><li>No macro nutrient info </li></ul><ul><li>No feelings or comments </li></ul>