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Dearman cold economy engines waste heat to power


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Dearman cold economy engines waste heat to power

  1. 1. Dearman is a technology company delivering clean ‘cold and power’
  2. 2. Dearman, Unit 5 Stafford Cross Business Park, Stafford Road, Croydon, CR0 4TU T: +44 (0) 203 829 0035 W: E: Dearman is a technology company delivering clean ‘cold and power’. Dearman’s cutting-edge technology uniquely harnesses liquid air to deliver zero-emission power and cooling. It is developing and demonstrating a portfolio of proprietary technologies, products and services, which deliver outstanding performance, while reducing operating costs, fuel usage and emissions. With the global demand for sustainable cooling growing rapidly, Dearman is well-placed to take advantage. Moreover, working with customers to address their material, economic, environmental and social challenges, Dearman has the potential to deliver sizable reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, pollutants and particulates. The company is building an international reputation for innovation, rigour, commercial acumen and engineering excellence, all developing to fulfil its primary objective – to make the world a cleaner, cooler place.
  3. 3. Cold & Power
  4. 4. Dearman, Unit 5 Stafford Cross Business Park, Stafford Road, Croydon, CR0 4TU T: +44 (0) 203 829 0035 W: E: Cold is a vital foundation of modern society: without it the supply of food, data and medicine would break down. In fact, cold is the hidden link between the three biggest global challenges of this century: food, water and energy. Doing cold better would enable us to conserve energy and water, provide more food at an affordable price and enable the international growth of digital communications. By introducing modern ‘cold chains’ of refrigerated pack-houses, warehousing and transport to developing countries, we could sharply reduce shockingly high post-harvest losses of food – preserving up to 200 million tonnes of perishables which would otherwise be wasted. This would also conserve the vast amounts of water, fertiliser, fuel and labour that goes into producing it. It is estimated that 2 million people die each year from a lack of vaccines due to no cold chain. In India, the world’s third largest pharmaceutical producer, almost 25% of vaccines arrive damaged or degraded because they have not been kept cold. This can and should be addressed by installing new infrastructure. The data industry and digital economy are growing rapidly, with millions of people in developing economies expected to ‘come online’ soon. Cooling in data centres can account for up to 50% of their total energy usage. To create economic growth, eliminate waste, enable development and improve living standards, countries and companies need to significantly increase their cold infrastructure. Whether it’s putting more refrigerated trucks onto the road to avoid food loss or building major new cooled data centres, the world must invest in cooling. But ‘greening’ cold is essential if meeting growth in demand is not to be ruinous. A transport refrigeration unit, for example, consumes up to 20% of a refrigerated vehicle’s diesel but can emit up to six times as much NOx and 29 times as much particulate matter as the modern diesel engine driving the vehicle. If we use traditional technologies to meet the urgent need for cold infrastructure, the environmental impact would be ruinous. However, alternative zero-emission technologies, which can provide both cold and power, are available. Sustainable cold and power – a global challenge
  5. 5. Cooling consumes up to 14% of UK electricity, and the combined annual cost of electric and transport cooling in the UK is more than £5 billion. India loses 40% of the food it grows after harvesting, much of it because cold chains are rudimentary or non-existent. 200 million tonnes of perishable foods could be preserved if developing nations had the same level of cold chain as the developed world. 2 million people die each year from a lack of vaccines due to no cold chain. The global refrigerated vehicle market is expected to double to 9.6 million vehicles by 2025; and some estimates are much higher. The global market for Dearman technologies
  6. 6. Chinese cold storage capacity is on track to more than double by 2017. Cold chain investment is booming in India, and annual revenues in the sector are forecast to reach $13 billion by 2017. Approximately 370,000 buses are sold each year, each of which requires auxiliary power for air conditioning and other services. That figure is expected to rise to over 800,000 per year within the next decade. Nearly $12 billion is spent each year on distributed electricity generation. A significant proportion of operators have a need for cooling as well as power. A Carbon Trust report indicated that the UK alone could create 10,000 jobs by 2025 by leading the ‘Cold Economy’ and developing new clean cold technologies.
  7. 7. Dearman Technology
  8. 8. Dearman, Unit 5 Stafford Cross Business Park, Stafford Road, Croydon, CR0 4TU T: +44 (0) 203 829 0035 W: E: The Dearman Engine Dearman is developing liquid air technologies in partnership with academics, industry leaders and experts in cryogenics. At the heart of this technology portfolio is the Dearman Engine – a novel piston engine, which utilises the expansion of either liquid air or liquid nitrogen to provide zero-emission power and cooling. The Dearman Engine builds upon understood and industry tested engine technology, but includes proprietary heat exchange techniques, which significantly increase the efficiency, applicability and cost benefits of the engine. Crucially, the only emission from a Dearman Engine is air or nitrogen, with no emissions of NOx, CO2 or particulates. Dearman technology has a number of benefits, even compared to other low carbon technologies. Dearman technology: • provides simultaneous power and cooling • low capital cost & embedded carbon • fast refuelling – liquid air can be refuelled in minutes not hours • existing infrastructure – the industrial gas industry is established and global • mature fuel manufacturing process – liquefaction of air is an established process How a Dearman Engine works 1. Return Stroke Water heat exchange fluid enters the cylinder. 2. Top Dead Centre Cryogenic liquid is injected directly into the cylinder. Heat transfer with the heat exchange fluid causes rapid vaporisation and pressure to rise. 3. Power Stroke The vaporised cryogenic liquid expands pushing the piston down. Direct contact heat transfer continues allowing near isothermal expansion. 4. Return Stroke The exhaust mixture leaves the cylinder. The gas is returned to the atmosphere and the heat exchange fluid is re-heated and re-used. A Dearman Engine
  9. 9. Dearman, Unit 5 Stafford Cross Business Park, Stafford Road, Croydon, CR0 4TU T: +44 (0) 203 829 0035 W: E: Dearman Engine technology is being used to provide high efficiency, zero-emission transport refrigeration units. The global market for refrigerated transport is projected to at least double by 2025, with at least 9.6 million vehicles on the road. But transport refrigeration units on the road today are generally inefficient and highly polluting, producing significantly more NOx and particulate matter than the main diesel engine. There is a major opportunity for Dearman to deliver an efficient, cost effective and environmentally sustainable alternative. The Dearman system uses liquid air or nitrogen to provide cooling, while expansion of the gas in the Dearman engine provides power to run fans and other systems. In addition to significant reductions in NOx and particulate emissions, the Dearman system results in substantial well-to-wheel CO2 savings. The operating costs are also lower than conventional transport refrigeration units and pay-back is likely to be less than one year. Discussing the Dearman transport refrigeration system, Pat Maughan, Managing Director of Hubbard said: “We have reviewed the Dearman technology and concluded it has enormous potential to revolutionise both the emissions and costs inherent in refrigerated transport.” The Dearman transport refrigeration system Air-conditioning can double the diesel consumption of a bus or distribution vehicle. Addressing this secondary use of power can bring significant environmental and cost benefits. In a future where more urban vehicles adopt electric drive, providing power for cooling and other services can also have a serious impact on the vehicle’s range. In hot climates the combination of cooling and battery temperature control can even make electrification unfeasible. Dearman’s technology is being used to develop a zero-emission solution. A combined auxiliary power and cooling unit that will offer reduced fuel usage and emissions has received Innovate UK funding and will begin trials shortly. The Dearman auxiliary power system is a cost-effective enhancement to a vehicle’s systems, utilising the unique properties of liquid air to provide efficient cooling along with power for the vehicle’s electrified braking, steering assistance, electric doors and lighting. This approach will reduce the requirement for a vehicle to run its engine while stationary, reduce fuel usage or increase battery range, and have a positive impact on vehicle design. The Dearman auxiliary power system Applications of Dearman Technology
  10. 10. Electricity grids around the world are being stretched by increasing demand, the retirement of older power stations and the growing use of intermittent renewable generation. The capacity to meet the highest demand peaks has typically been provided by a fleet of distributed diesel generators. These are used to generate backup power in the event of a power cut; reduce consumption of grid electricity when power is most expensive; and earn revenue by providing reserve capacity to network operators. But diesel gen-sets are highly polluting and are being used increasingly often. Dearman technology can provide an efficient, zero-emission alternative. Dearman’s built environment system utilises the Dearman engine, which will perform the same functions as a diesel generator, including providing emergency backup power, reducing the owner’s energy costs and providing reserve services to the grid. What’s more, the Dearman system would provide ‘free’ cooling, making it particularly advantageous for applications such as supermarkets and data centres, which require extensive cooling. The Dearman genset is based upon the Dearman Engine, utilising the expansion of liquid air or nitrogen to provide zero-emission power, while the gas can be used directly in a heat exchanger to provide cooling to the building or its essential services. The Dearman built environment system Dearman technology will also be used to deliver waste heat recovery for urban vehicles, such as buses and refuse trucks. Hybrid systems can increase fuel efficiency in urban areas by up to 20-30%. However, existing hybrid systems, which capture energy from braking, are expensive for large vehicles, are hard to retrofit, and without subsidy the economics are insufficiently attractive for them to be deployed. Typically vehicles also lose about two thirds of the energy in their fuel as waste heat. Heat recovery technologies to capture high-grade waste heat have been developed, but in urban settings insufficient heat is generated to make these technologies economically viable. s But there is an alternative – a Dearman engine working alongside a diesel engine – a heat hybrid. Dearman technology is capable of offering a unique combination of heat recovery and hybrid power, delivering similar levels of fuel saving to other hybrid systems, but at a much lower cost. Unlike other state-of-the-art technologies, the Dearman heat hybrid can convert low-grade waste heat from a diesel-powered internal combustion engine into shaft power at high efficiencies. As a result, it could achieve up to a 25% reduction in fuel usage, but without the complexity and therefore cost of existing systems. The Dearman heat hybrid Dearman, Unit 5 Stafford Cross Business Park, Stafford Road, Croydon, CR0 4TU T: +44 (0) 203 829 0035 W: E:
  11. 11. The Future Dearman is investing heavily in the development of future technologies and applications that can deliver both environmental and economic benefits. Dearman’s technology and product development process is driven by the needs of customers. It works with them to identify and overcome their environmental, economic and social challenges, ultimately by providing access to cleaner and more affordable cold and power. As the world faces global challenges of food scarcity, climate change, increasing middle class consumption and growing energy demand, how we deliver clean and sustainable cold and power is a major issue. Dearman, with its unique clean cold and power technology, and world class engineering know-how, is well placed to contribute, helping to make the world a cleaner and cooler place. Dearman, Unit 5 Stafford Cross Business Park, Stafford Road, Croydon, CR0 4TU T: +44(0) 203 829 0035 W: E: