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Tim Stonor_The spatial architecture of the smart city_141030

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Tim Stonor's keynote at Nikkei Smart City Week 2014, Yokohama, Japan.

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Tim Stonor_The spatial architecture of the smart city_141030

  1. 1. The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 スマートシティの空間アーキテクチャー ロンドンオリンピック/パラリンピックの教訓 Nikkei Smart City Week Yokohama 30th October 2014 Tim Stonor Architect & Urban Planner
  2. 2. Part One The spatial architecture of the SMART city パート1 スマートシティの空間アーキテクチャー @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 What is a Smart City? スマートシティとは何か? How can a Smart City be planned & governed? スマートシティを、どのように計画し、運営するか? Where is the place for technology in the Smart City? スマートシティの、どこにテクノロジーが使われるか?
  3. 3. Part Two The UK Smart & Future City effort パート2 英国におけるスマートシティ、フューチャーシティへの取り組み Tim Stonor Integrated Urbanism Space Syntax © 2014
  4. 4. Part Three Lessons from London 2012 パート3 ロンドンオリンピック/パラリンピックからの教訓 Tim Stonor Integrated Urbanism Space Syntax © 2014
  5. 5. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Urban failure 都市の破綻
  6. 6. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 How people live 人々の営み
  7. 7. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Beware fanciful ideas 空想的な考えにはご注意を
  8. 8. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Embrace the new science of cities 新たな都市のサイエンスを受け入れて
  9. 9. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Avoid introverted architecture 内向きの建築を避けて
  10. 10. ヒューマンスケールでの計画都市版BIMの構築 @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Plan at a human scale Construct an Urban BIM Special project development guidelines Primary routes Land use mix Commercial 30% Residential 65% Social Infrastructure 5% FAR 4.5 Plot coverage (ground) 80 – 100% Plot coverage (upper) 50 – 75% Building height 5 – 7 Secondary routes Land use mix Commercial 10% Residential 75% Social Infrastructure 15% FAR 3.0 Plot coverage (ground) 70 – 80% Plot coverage (upper) 50 – 60% Building height 4 – 5 Self organising development guidelines Plot area FAR 60 - 99 sq m 1.0 100 – 299 sq m 3.0 300 – 599 sq m 4.0 600+ sq m 5.0
  11. 11. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y = .784x + 2.147, R-squared: .589 @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 The new art of urban data science 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Spatial accessibility Pedestrian movement y = 1.235x + 1.048, R-squared: .702 Spatial accessibility 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vehicle movement 都市データ科学の新手法 空間アクセス性空間アクセス性 歩行者量 自動車量
  12. 12. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Sense Map Analyse React Test … 調査 地図化 分析 応答 検証
  13. 13. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Sense Map Analyse React Test … S M A R T 調査 地図化 分析 応答 検証
  14. 14. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 1. Focus on space 空間に着目する
  15. 15. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Space Syntax Spatial Layout Accessibility スペースシンタックス空間レイアウト面でのアクセス性
  16. 16. 80% retail located on 20% most spatially accessible streets 8割の小売店舗はアクセス性上位2割の街路に立地している @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Courtesy of The TLRN Central London Pedestrian Study by Atkins Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014
  17. 17. ロンドン・トラファルガー広場 @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square, London Observe Explain Forecast Deliver
  18. 18. Darwin, Australia ダーウィン市(オーストラリア) Tim Stonor Integrated Urbanism Space Syntax © 2014
  19. 19. Real estate value analysis 不動産価値の分析 つながりの悪いレイアウトつながりの良いレイアウト 空間アクセス性指標空間アクセス性指標 内部收益率 @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 Disconnected Layout Spatial Accessibility Score = 35 Connected layout Spatial Accessibility Score = 75 Disconnected Layout Connected Layout Difference IRR 15% 18% 3% NPV $1.6 billion $1.1 billion $0.5 billion 現在価値 つながりの悪いレイアウトつながりの良いレイアウト差異
  20. 20. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 2. Co-create between academia & industry 学術研究と実務による共同での創造 University College London Space Syntax
  21. 21. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 3. Focus on human outcomes 人間がつくる現象に着目する
  22. 22. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 4. Model the impact of cities on resource flows 資源の流れについての都市のインパクトをモデル化する
  23. 23. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 4. Model the impact of cities on resource flows 資源の流れについての都市のインパクトをモデル化する
  24. 24. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 5. Model the impact of cities on the environment 環境に関する都市のインパクトをモデル化する
  25. 25. Space Syntax Key lessons スペースシンタックス主要な教訓 @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 1. Focus on space 空間に着目する 2. Co-create between academia & industry 学術研究と実務による共同での創造 3. Focus on human outcomes 人間の結果に着目する 4. Model the impact of cities on resource flows 資源の流れについての都市のインパクトをモデル化する 5. Model the impact of cities on the environment 環境に関する都市のインパクトをモデル化する
  26. 26. People 1.Behaviour 2.Wealth 3.Health 4.Safety 5.Cultural identity USER INTERFACES SMART STEPS Uncertainties Ideas for change Consultations Decisions Actions Resources 1.Materials 2.Energy 3.Finance 4.Utilities supply 5.Waste handling Urban Form 1.Spatial Form 2.Physical Form - capacity - location - condition - value v3 Environment 1.Sun 2.Wind 3.Rainfall 4.Groundform 5.Biodiversity Data Mapping Data Quantification Map Urban Data Collective Integrated platform for visualising performance data How is the place working? Opportunities & Constraints Creation of Conceptual Options React Urban Strategy Integrated urban policy and practice What are the opportunities for change? Test Urban Forecast Model Scenario testing & performance forecasting How will performance be affected by change? Simulation & Optimisation of Options Development of Preferred Option Understandings Analyse Urban Performance Model Integrated urban diagnostics: spatial analytics Why does the place work the way it does? Urban Diagnosis Issues, Objectives & Principles Decision groups Data out DATA INPUTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 Space Syntax © 2014 Sense Health Wealth Happiness Data in 人都市構造資源環境 Behaviour change 不確実性 理解 改善案 協議 決断 実行 調査 地図化都市データの収集 分析都市機能モデル 応答都市戦略 検証都市予測モデル Integrated 統合型 Urban 都市 Model モデル マッピング 定量化 都市の診断 課題・方向性 機会・制約 コンセプト案 シミュレーション・最適化 計画案の決定 健康豊かさ幸福 行動変化
  27. 27. Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing 空間マスタープラン迅速なデザイン検討と評価 Tim Stonor Spatial layout as critical infrastructure IGEBC UK Seminar Space Syntax © 2014 Spatial Accessibility High Low
  28. 28. Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing 空間マスタープラン迅速なデザイン検討と評価 Tim Stonor Spatial layout as critical infrastructure IGEBC UK Seminar Space Syntax © 2014 Spatial Accessibility High Low
  29. 29. Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing 空間マスタープラン迅速なデザイン検討と評価 Tim Stonor Spatial layout as critical infrastructure IGEBC UK Seminar Space Syntax © 2014 Spatial Accessibility High Low
  30. 30. Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing 空間マスタープラン迅速なデザイン検討と評価 Tim Stonor Spatial layout as critical infrastructure IGEBC UK Seminar Space Syntax © 2014 Spatial Accessibility High Low
  31. 31. Spatial masterplanning Rapid design development & testing 空間マスタープラン迅速なデザイン検討と評価 Tim Stonor Spatial layout as critical infrastructure IGEBC UK Seminar Space Syntax © 2014 Spatial Accessibility High Low
  32. 32. UK Smart & Future Cities Strategy @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 製造、建設、コンサルティン グ、公益事業 の各業界 学術機関 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 GO-Science Foresight Future of Cities Future Cities/Transport Catapult/Demonstrators Professional Institutes UKTI Smart Cities UK Research Councils Innovate UK Cities Programme UK Cities & Citizens Manufacturing, Construction, Consulting & Utilities Industries Academic Institutions British Standards/ Open Data Institute Smart Cities Ministerial Forum Government Depts. 英国貿易投資総省 英国研究会議 未来都市、交通システムカタ パルトの運動 各省庁の スマートシティ部門 英国のスマートシティ戦略 イノベーティブUK プログラム 英国の都市・市民 ビジネス・イノベーション ・技能省 未来都市フォーサイト ・プロジェクト 各専門家団体・組織 英国規格協会 オープンデータ協会
  33. 33. UK Smart & Future Cities Strategy @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 製造、建設、コンサルティング 、公益事業 の各業界 学術機関 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 GO-Science Foresight Future of Cities Future Cities/Transport Catapult/Demonstrators Professional Institutes UKTI Smart Cities UK Research Councils Innovate UK Cities Programme UK Cities & Citizens Manufacturing, Construction, Consulting & Utilities Industries Academic Institutions British Standards/ Open Data Institute Smart Cities Ministerial Forum Government Depts. 英国貿易投資総省 英国研究会議 未来都市、交通システムカタパ ルトの運動 各省庁の スマートシティ部門 英国のスマートシティ戦略 イノベーティブUK プログラム 英国の都市・市民 ビジネス・イノベーション ・技能省 未来都市フォーサイト ・プロジェクト 各専門家団体・組織 英国規格協会 オープンデータ協会
  34. 34. The Future of Cities Foresight Project Overview Project aim Provide central and local government with an evidence base to support decisions in the short term which will lead to positive outcomes for cities in the long term. Spatial scales UK system of cities and city systems. Time horizons 2040, 2065. 未来都市フォーサイト・プロジェクト 概要 プロジェクトの目的 国、地方の政府の意思決定を支える エビデンスを提供することを通じて 、将来的に、より良い街をつくるこ とを目指す。 対象範囲 英国各都市の都市システム 計画対象期間 2040年、2065年
  35. 35. The Future of Cities Foresight Project Key urban policy questions 都市戦略についての主要な問い 1. In which locations, and in what numbers, are people going to live, work and take leisure? どの「場所」に、どれだけの「数」の人口が住み、働き、訪れるのか? 2. What forms of movement will exist to connect people together? どのような「移動」が、人々を結びつけるのか? 3. What flows of resources will need to occur - for example with energy, water and waste – to support human behaviour patterns? 人々の行動を支えるため、どのような「資源」(エネルギー、水、ゴミ)の流れが必要か? 4. What technologies will exist to support these interactions? 5. What impacts will these have on the natural environment? これらによって、自然環境に対してどのような「影響」があるのか? 6. How will future places be funded? これからできる場所は、どのように「資金供給」されるのか? 7. How will decisions be made to address each of these questions? これらの問いへの答えは、どのように「決定」されるのか?
  36. 36. UK Smart & Future Cities Strategy @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 製造、建設、コンサルティング 、公益事業 の各業界 学術機関 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 GO-Science Foresight Future of Cities Future Cities/Transport Catapult/Demonstrators Professional Institutes UKTI Smart Cities UK Research Councils Innovate UK Cities Programme UK Cities & Citizens Manufacturing, Construction, Consulting & Utilities Industries Academic Institutions British Standards/ Open Data Institute Smart Cities Ministerial Forum Government Depts. 英国貿易投資総省 英国研究会議 未来都市、交通システムカタパ ルトの運動 各省庁の スマートシティ部門 英国のスマートシティ戦略 イノベーティブUK プログラム 英国の都市・市民 ビジネス・イノベーション ・技能省 未来都市フォーサイト ・プロジェクト 各専門家団体・組織 英国規格協会 オープンデータ協会
  37. 37. o Existing standards mapped onto smart city model Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. ✓ Mostly Technical: “What” needs to be done to implement ✓ Some Process: “How” actions and steps to be taken to implement ✓ Few Strategic: “Why” planning and management guidance www.bsigroup.com/smartcitymapping Mapping smart city standards スマートシティ標準化の見取り図 ほとんどが、技術的に「何を」 すべきかについて いくつかは、プロセスとして 「どのように」実現すべきかについて 計画や運営についての戦略としての 「なぜ」という部分は少ない
  38. 38. International smart city standardisation activities スマートシティに関する標準化の国際的な動き Copyright © 2012 BSI. All rights reserved. ISO Advisory Group on Smart Cities ISO/TC 268 Sustainable development in communities Strategic Process Technical Current ISO work Current CEN work ISO/IEC JTC1 Study Group on Smart Cities IEC Systems Evaluation Group on Smart Cities CEN CENELEC ETSI Co-ordination Group on Smart & Sustainable, Cities & Communities Current IEC work Current ITU work ISO/TC 268/SC 1 Smart Community Infrastructure ITU-T Focus Group on Smart, Sustainable Cities BSI Lead 戦略論 プロセス論 技術論 国際電気通 信連合 英国規格協会が 主導 国際電気標 準会議 欧州標準化 委員会 国際標準化 機構
  39. 39. London 2012 ロンドンオリンピック・パラリンピック2012 @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014
  40. 40. Design Panels デザインパネル(委員会) 1. Quality Review Panel 質的評価委員会 2. Built Environment Access Panel 周辺環境アクセス委員会 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  41. 41. London 2012 Creating a piece of city 都市の一角を創造する @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014
  42. 42. Addressing deprivation 貧困問題の解消 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  43. 43. A tear in London’s fabric ロンドンの都市繊維の裂け目 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  44. 44. A park to stitch between west and east 東西を縫い合わせる公園 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  45. 45. The London 2012 site ロンドンオリンピック・パラリンピックの会場 @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  46. 46. Transport connectivity 公共交通の接続性 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  47. 47. The Olympic Fringe public realm programme オリンピック会場周辺 公共領域プログラム Underway since 2005 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  48. 48. London 2012 Conceptual Spatial Masterplan 概念的な空間マスタープラン Tim Stonor Integrated Urbanism Space Syntax © 2014
  49. 49. Games time 大会開催中 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  50. 50. Games time 大会開催中 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  51. 51. Games layout 会場のレイアウト London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  52. 52. Retained venues 存続する競技会場 10/09/11 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  53. 53. Buildings frame the Park 建物が公園の領域を規定する London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  54. 54. Post-Games layout (Transformation) 終了後のレイアウト(転換) London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  55. 55. Legacy Masterplan レガシー(遺産)のマスタープラン Chobham Manor Marshgate Wharf Pudding Mill East Wick Sweetwater London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  56. 56. Accessibility & connectivity are critical アクセスとつながりが最重要 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  57. 57. Pedestrian routes 歩行者ルート London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  58. 58. East London Green Grid Cycle routes 自転車ルート London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  59. 59. CCoonnnenceticngt itnog Ea tsot L looncdoanl ’sc voibmramntu conmitmieusnities 地域コミュニティーをつなぐ London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  60. 60. Fostering local centres 地域の中心地区を発展させる London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  61. 61. Three distinctive parks 特色ある公園 North Park Canal Park South Park London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  62. 62. North Park 北公園 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  63. 63. Canal Park 運河公園 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  64. 64. South Park 南公園 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  65. 65. Housing 居住地区 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  66. 66. Learning from London’s traditions ロンドンの伝統から学ぶ London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  67. 67. From Media Centre to Digital Creative District メディアセンターから、デジタル創造地区へ London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  68. 68. Design quality at every scale あらゆるスケールでのデザイン的な質 The Greens A planting palette consistent with the Parklands London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  69. 69. London Legacy Development Corporation ロンドンレガシー 開発公社 • a landowner 地権者 • a investor/developer 出資者、ディベロッパー • an estate manager 不動産マネージャー • a planning authority 計画立案機関 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  70. 70. Interim uses 暫定的な土地利用 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  71. 71. Interim uses 暫定的な土地利用 London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  72. 72. London Legacy Development Corporation © 2014
  73. 73. @Tim_Stonor The spatial architecture of the SMART city Lessons from London 2012 Nikkei Smart City Week Space Syntax © 2014 www.spacesyntax-japan.com Seiji Takamatsu Managing Director

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