40 years of peace talks

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A look at the Israeli and Palestinian Peace Process over 40 years.

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40 years of peace talks

  1. 1. 40 years of Peace Talks<br />1977 Menachem Begin became Prime Minister in Israel<br />
  2. 2. 40 years of Peace Talks<br />Begin – led the Israeli opposition fo 30 years<br />Wanted to make deal with Egypt over Sinai Desert<br />Did not want to let go of West Bank<br />Egyptian President Anwar Sadat wanted to end war with Israel and was willing to give up Sinai Penninsula<br />Sadat shocked the world and announced he would go personally to Knesset to seek peace<br />Syrian Leader Assad and PLO’s Arafat were very upset by this announcement.<br />
  3. 3. 40 years of Peace Talks<br />Begin did not want to destroy Israeli Sinai Settlements<br />Sadat was determined to get rid of settlements in the Sinai desert<br />Sadat thought this would be the first step to peace between all Jews, Arabs, and Palestinians<br />
  4. 4. 40 years of Peace Talks<br />President Jimmy Carter got involved in Peace Talks<br />
  5. 5. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />September 1978 President Carter hosted Sadat and Begin at Camp David<br />13 days of negotiating to reach Agreement<br />
  6. 6. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />Egypt agreed to make Peace with Israel<br />Israel would return Sinai to Egypt<br />Israel would close the Israeli Settlements in the Sinai desert<br />Sadat and Begin agreed to give autonomy and limited local power to Palestinians in West Bank and Gaza<br />This was rejected by the PLO<br />This brought an end to 30 years of conflict between Egypt and Israel<br />
  7. 7. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />After peace agreement, Begin was free to act without fear of Egypt attacking<br />Increased settlements in West Bank from 45 to 112<br />Begin was worried about PLO in Lebanon and was now free to attack<br />1975 Israelis set up South Lebanon Army (SLA)<br />Made up of Lebanese Christians whom Israel saw as allies<br />March, 1978 Israel invaded southern Lebanon<br />Following a bus bombing by the PLO<br />
  8. 8. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />Bus Bombing in 1978<br />
  9. 9. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />Large number of Palestinians and Israelis were killed because of the invasion. <br />Israel withdrew from most of the border but kept some troops on a small plot of land<br />June, 1982 Israel again invaded Lebanon<br />Operation Peace of Galilee<br />Took 3 years for Israelis to withdraw from Lebanon<br />Arafat and the PLO finally pulled out of Lebanon in August<br />
  10. 10. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />DIVISIONS IN THE RELIGIOUS SOCIETY<br />RELIGIOUS JEWS<br />JEWS WHO PAY LITTLE ATTENTION TO JEWISH FAITH<br />ISRAELI JEWS FROM EUROPEAN BACKGROUND<br />JEWS FROM AFRICA AND ASIAN BACKGROUNDS<br />SUPPORTERS OF THE LEFT-WING LABOUR PARTY<br />SUPPORTERS OF THE RIGHT-WING LIKUD<br />ISRAELI JEWS WHO WANT TO COMPROMISE WITH PALESTINIANS<br />ISRAELI JEWS WHO WANT THE GOVERHMENT TO TAKE A TOUGH LINE WITH PALESTINIANS<br />
  11. 11. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />LABOUR PARTY –Sees itself caring on the work of early left wing socialists.<br />Socialists wanted good relations with their Arab neighbors as far back as 1920<br />Dominated Israeli government for 30 years<br />Many Jews wanted nothing to do with the Arabs and thought Force should be used<br />Vladimir Jabotinsky – leader of the hardliners<br />“What is needed is an Iron Wall of Armed force….No agreement was possible with the Palestinian Arab.”<br />
  12. 12. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />Ben Gurion was the Socialist leader that disagreed with Jabotinsky and the hardline approach.<br />Ben Gurion called for Havlaga<br />Hebrew term meaning “self restraint”<br />Divisions among Jews increased in the 1940’s<br />2 armies one for the left wing and one for the right wing. <br />Haganah – left wing<br />Irgun – Right wing<br />
  13. 13. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />Left Wing was much more popular and Ben Gurion was the first Prime Minister 1948<br />Right Wing leader = Menachim Begin<br />Ben Gurion accepted the UN Partition Plan<br />Begin rejected Partition Plan and said that all of Palestine should be under Jewish Control 1948<br />Ben Gurion attacked a Irgun ship and sunk it. <br />
  14. 14. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />European Jews = Ashkenazi Jews<br />Arab Jews = Sephardic Jews<br />Sephardic Jews had trouble intergrading into Israeli Life.<br /> Trouble finding work<br /> Language Problems<br /> started to turn against the Labour Party and joined the Likud Party<br />
  15. 15. 40 Years of Peace Talks <br />Sephardic Jews helped get Begin elected to Prime Minister<br />Fast Forward to 1989 – Soviets allow Jews to leave the country and huge migration to Israel<br />More than 700,000 immigrants by 1996 and they created a new party – YisraelBealiya<br />This new party alligned with hard liners and Likud<br />
  16. 16. 40 Years of Peace Talks<br />THE SETTLEMENT MOVEMENT<br />Orthodox believe it is God’s Plan to have all Jews live in Israel<br />The Orthodox are huge supporters of the Settlement movement.<br />Hebrew Gush Emunim (Bloc of the Faithful) 1967<br />1967 – Labour Party established a small number of Israeli settlements in West Bank for defensive reasons<br />Likud wanted many more settlements established<br />
  17. 17. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />LIKUD TAKES POWER<br /> Huge expansion in settlements<br />1976 – 1996 Increase in settlers from 4,000 to over 100,000<br />Middle of 1990’s settlers constituted about 10% of population of the West Bank<br />West Bank town of Hebron – tension between settlers and Palestinian<br />Settlers have to be protected by Armed Israeli Guards<br />
  18. 18. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />One of many West Bank Settlements<br />
  19. 19. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />ARMED GUARDS IN THE 1980’S<br />
  20. 20. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />
  21. 21. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />Palestinian merchant in West Bank<br />
  22. 22. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />AMERICAN INFLUENCE ON ISRAEL<br />1951 Israel and US signed a treaty of Friendship<br />US has tried to influence Israel to negotiate a peace deal<br />Madrid Peace Conference 1991<br />1992 President Bush told Israel to stop expanding Settlements in the West Bank but Israelis refused to change.<br />1993 – American Pressure lead to an agreement<br />Bill Clinton elected President in 1992<br />PLO and Israeli peace deal was signed in Washington, DC<br />
  23. 23. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />
  24. 24. 40 YEARS OF UNREST<br />INTIFADA<br />PALESTINIAN UPRISING FROM 1987 TO 1991<br />Started in a refugee camp, and then spread to the Gaza Strip, West Bank and East Jerusalem<br />Civil unrest and disobedience and boycotting of Israeli products<br />Israeli’s started to look to government to do something<br />
  25. 25. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />WHAT WAS AGREED TO?<br />Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements<br />it was the first direct, face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the PLO.<br />the Israeli government recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people<br />PLO recognized the right of the state of Israel to exist and renounced terrorism as well as other violence, and its desire for the destruction of the Israeli state.<br />
  26. 26. 40 YEARS OF NEGOTIATIONS<br />Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority,<br />an elected Council, for the Palestinian people in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip,<br />a transitional period not exceeding five years, leading to a permanent settlement<br />based on UN Security Council Resolution 242 and 338<br />Israel withdraw from Gaza Strip and Jericho area<br />Arafat took control of Gaza and West Bank <br />
  27. 27. 40 YEARS OF NEGOTIATIONS<br />PEACE AGREEMENT WITH JORDAN SIGNED IN 1993<br />PALESTINIANS REACTION TO THE PEACE DEALS<br />It did not remove settlements from the West Bank<br />Israeli settlers not under Palestinian Rule<br />Arab East Jerusalem was excluded from deal<br />Israeli forces still present in Palestinian territories<br />Nothing regarding refugees<br />
  28. 28. 40 YEARS OF PEACE NEGOTIATIONS<br />ISRAELI REACTION<br />Right Wing and religious Israelis were not happy<br />Give up West Bank which had historical significance<br />Did not trust PLO <br />Tried to stop the peace agreements<br />Israeli settler killed 29 in the West Bank in the center of Hebron<br />1994 – Hamas suicide bombings of buses<br />1995 – Jewish extremist killed Rabin<br />Showed the divided nature of Israeli society<br />
  29. 29. 40 YEARS OF PEACE TALKS<br />RABIN ASSASINATION<br />Turning point of Israeli history<br />Would have won 1996 election <br />More attacks by Hamas and thus Israelis thought peace deal was not working<br />

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