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Health In The Us1


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Health In The Us1

  1. 1. Bigger and Better? Health in the US
  2. 2. What does it mean to be healthy? A state of well being that is free from disease. How healthy are we? The life expectancy of an American man is: 75 yrs. old The life expectancy of an American woman is: 80 yrs. old Why is it at this level? The improvement in technology and healthcare . Why isn’t it the highest? There are some very serious health problems that are occurring in the US, that aren’t as prevalent in other countries. (diet, lifestyles) Health in the US
  3. 3. World life expectancy Health in the US
  4. 4. <ul><li>In 1900, life expectancy at birth was about 49 years. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1960, life expectancy had increased to 70 years, </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, life expectancy at birth was 80 years for women and 75 years for men. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the biggest changes has been the life expectancy of people who reach the age of 65. They now live 18 yrs. past 65 on average. </li></ul><ul><li>What has accounted for this dramatic change in life expectancy? </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in medicine and care for the elderly. </li></ul><ul><li>(60 is really becoming the “new 50”, etc.) </li></ul>How has American life expectancy changed in the past century? Health in the US
  5. 5. Health in the US
  6. 6. How is wealth and life expectancy related? Why? Have more access to better preventative care than poorer Americans. Health in the US
  7. 7. <ul><li>If wealth and life expectancy are related and the majority of Americans are lower class, where does this leave health care in the US? </li></ul><ul><li>One major problem facing Americans is: not being able to afford health insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the big deal? </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t see the doctor regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t afford major surgeries, which can cause financial ruin. </li></ul><ul><li>Places a burden on the American taxpayer/ gov’t to pick up the bill. </li></ul><ul><li>(people are required by law to be treated by emergency rooms, even if the patient does not have insurance) </li></ul>Health in the US
  8. 8. Who is uninsured? Major groups: 38% Mexicans 33% Native Americans. 32% 18-24 yr. old Total: 16% of the population in uninsured. (Avg.) Health in the US
  9. 9. The Cost to American taxpayers: Health in the US
  10. 10. The cost of healthcare: The US spends more money on healthcare than any other nation in the world. The majority of money comes from: A total of $1.4 trillion dollars was spent on healthcare in 2005. Health in the US
  11. 11. <ul><li>How does this explain health care problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Many employers can not provide quality care for their employees (first programs to be cut when profits go down) </li></ul><ul><li>Taxpayers are picking up the bill for a portion of the population that can’t afford it. </li></ul>Example: A person who does not have good coverage, such as having to pay up to $500 premium before the insurance kicks in, will avoid going to the doctor regularly, increasing the likelihood they will eventually get sick. When they do end up with a serious illness, since they can’t afford the costs, the US taxpayer has to pay for any hospital care. Health in the US
  12. 12. <ul><li>Where is the money going? </li></ul><ul><li>41% for Hospital Care </li></ul><ul><li>28% for Physician Services </li></ul><ul><li>10% for Nursing Home Care </li></ul><ul><li>10% for Prescription Drugs (largest growing area) </li></ul><ul><li>Why are prescription drug costs rising so much? </li></ul><ul><li>Drug companies are spending more $ on advertising and marketing (thus driving up their prices) </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs are becoming the preferred form of treatment for illnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of elderly Americans is increasing dramatically. </li></ul>Health in the US
  13. 13. Health in the US
  14. 14. Access to Healthcare:  There is a current surplus of doctors today in the US between 100,000 and 150,000. Why are some people having trouble accessing Healthcare?  The majority of doctors are located in wealthy urban and suburban areas. Ex: In Beverly Hills area of Los Angeles, there is a doctor for every 254 people. In contrast, in South- Central Los Angeles, there is a doctor for every 24,500 people.  Also, of the 700,000 doctors in the US, only 65,000 are general practitioners (family doctors), thus creating a shortage in basic medical care. Health in the US
  15. 15. The Cost of Healthcare: The average amount spent on health care per person is: $3834/ yr. For those over the age of 65: $11,000/ yr. An average operation in the hospital can cause economic disaster for the patient. Ex: In Las Vegas, the cost to treat a broken ankle totals over $25,000 for the patient. For other operations it can be more: Nevada= hospital charges are 300 times the costs. Health in the US
  16. 16. It makes no sense for Valley Hospital in Las Vegas to charge $233,259 for a heart valve operation that the Cleveland Clinic lists at $88,273, not when the Cleveland institution has a mortality rate of 3.67 percent for the procedure while Valley's is 6.78 percent. That means Nevadans pay more than 2 1/2 times more for an 85 percent greater chance of dying from the surgery. The fleecing of America Example of Economic differences and problems in the Health care system: Health in the US
  17. 17. Many Americans today suffer from chronic diseases. What is a chronic disease? Chronic diseases are long-term illnesses that are rarely cured. These diseases can become a significant health and financial burden to not only those persons who have them, but also their families and the nation’s health care system. Chronic conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease negatively affect quality of life, contributing to declines in functioning and the inability to remain in the community Health in the US
  18. 18. What are the major diseases that are afflicting Americans today? 1: Heart Disease 2: Cancer 3: Stroke Health in the US
  19. 19. Health in the US
  20. 20. Major chronic diseases that increase with age: Health in the US
  21. 21. <ul><li>What chronic diseases do? </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent the person from living a quality of life they are used to. </li></ul><ul><li>Require large amounts of time and money to maintain care for these sufferers for the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Place a strain on the economy to provide the necessary care. </li></ul>The person is often unable to: Health in the US
  22. 22. Other health effects for older Americans: - In 1998, about 15% of persons ages 65 to 69, 70 to 74, and 75 to 79 had severe symptoms of depression, compared with 21% of persons ages 80 to 84, and 23% of persons age 85 or older. - Memory Impairment- Health in the US
  23. 23. Problems facing all Americans: The number 1 factor affecting health today is: STRESS!!! How does your body react to stress? -raise blood pressure -increase heartbeat -restrict blood flow to the skin -reduce stomach activity, causing a feeling of 'butterflies' -increase perspiration. -release sugar and fat into the system -reduce the efficiency of the immune system, so we fight infections less well. Health in the US
  24. 24. Short term Effects of stress: High blood pressure can lead to headaches and circulation problems. Shutting down the immune system lays us more open to colds and other viruses. Reducing the normal function of the digestion system can cause stomach upsets. Long term Effects 50-70% more likely to suffer a stroke over time of high stress. Permanently raised blood pressure can increase your risk of a heart attack or stroke. (4-6x’s more likely in high effort/ low control jobs) Too much fat in the blood can clog the arteries, which also increases your risk of heart disease. Health in the US
  25. 25. Other Health issues: Depression Who does it affect? 1 in 10 Americans Women are 2x’s as likely to suffer from it. 1 st appearance is in the late teens and early 20’s. Health Effects of Depression: - Significant change in appetite or body weight - Difficulty sleeping or oversleeping - Loss of energy - Difficulty thinking or concentrating - Repeated thoughts of death or suicide ** Depression is projected to become the leading cause of disability Health in the US
  26. 26. Other Health Issues: Smoking How prevalent is it? An estimated 45.8 million, or 22.5 percent of, adults are current smokers Around 22% of high school students were current smokers. Over 10% of middle school students were current smokers in 2002 Health and Economic costs? Smoking-related diseases claim an estimated 440,000 American lives each year, Smoking costs the United States over $150 billion each year in health-care costs including $75.5 billion in excess medical expenditures. Health in the US
  27. 27. Figure 12. Cigarette smoking among men, women, high school students, and mothers during pregnancy: United States, 1965-2003 Men Women Mothers during pregnancy High school students Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2004 Percent 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2003 Year Health in the US
  28. 28. Smoking Trends: The annual prevalence of smoking has declined 47 percent between 1965 and 2002. Cigarette smoke contains over 4,800 chemicals, 69 of which are known to cause cancer. Smoking is directly responsible for 90 percent of lung cancer deaths and approximately 80-90 percent of COPD (emphysema and chronic bronchitis) deaths. Smoking is also a major factor in coronary heart disease and stroke; may be causally related to malignancies in other parts of the body; and has been linked to a variety of other conditions and disorders, including slowed healing of wounds, infertility, and peptic ulcer disease. Smoking in pregnancy accounts for an estimated 20 to 30 percent of low-birth weight babies. Health in the US
  29. 29. Fast Food: A closer look In the US: over 120,000 fast food chains Top 3: Subway (21,499 ) McDonald’s (13,609 ) Burger King (7,904 ) In the world: over 160,000 worldwide Income: US citizens spent $110 billion on fast food in 2000 – that's more than any other country in the world, and a lot more than the $6 billion spent 30–years ago in 1970. Fast Food Annual Expenditure: US - $1429 per annum per person West Europe - $467 - “North America, Western Europe and Japan together account for 86% of the global foodservice market” Health in the US
  30. 30. Fast Food in the United States: (how it began) Richard and Maurice McDonald chalked out a design for a new type of hamburger restaurant on a tennis court in 1948. Their goal was to make the operation as efficient as possible. Compared with previous fast-food chains they planned to reduce their expenses, thereby permitting them to sell hamburgers at a lower price. “ The McDonalds' success encouraged others to imitate them. Based on his observation of their burger stand, Keith Cramer began a fast-food hamburger restaurant in Florida which eventually became the Burger King chain. In 1954 Ray Kroc, a salesman who sold Multimixers, visited the McDonald's operation. He was so impressed that he arranged with the McDonalds to sell franchises.” Health in the US
  31. 31. <ul><li>The American success story: (McDonalds) </li></ul><ul><li>The McDonald's Corporation has become a powerful symbol of America's service economy, which is now responsible for 90 percent of the country's new jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968, McDonald's operated about one thousand restaurants. Today it has about twenty-eight thousand restaurants worldwide and opens almost two thousand new ones each year. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated one out of every eight workers in the United States has at some point been employed by McDonald's. The company annually hires about one million people, more than any other American organization, public or private. </li></ul>Health in the US
  32. 32. <ul><li>The American success story: (McDonalds) </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald's is the nation's largest purchaser of beef, pork, and potatoes -- and the second largest purchaser of chicken. The McDonald's Corporation is the largest owner of retail property in the world. Indeed, the company earns the majority of its profits not from selling food but from collecting rent. </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald's famous golden arches that form the letter &quot;M&quot;are now more widely recognized than the Christian cross. </li></ul>Health in the US
  33. 33. Influence of Fast Food: The success of many fast food chains is directly related to their ability to market their products to the public. Many restaurants have focused their marketing strategy on bringing children into the restaurants. By focusing on children at an early age, they can develop a life long relationship with that person, as well, as bring more parents into the restaurants as well. Advertising to children by fast food restaurants is now a $13 billion dollar a year industry. Health in the US
  34. 34. Influence of Fast Food: Some Examples of marketing to children: 1) Pizza Hut’s Book It reading program. 2) Coke and Pepsi contracts with schools. 3) Characters like, Ronald McDonald, the Taco Bell Chihuahua, Wendy, and Grimace. 4) The introduction of the Happy Meal, and the Burger King Kid’s Club. 5) Contracts with Movie companies, like Disney. 6) Playlands attached to the restaurants. Health in the US
  35. 35. <ul><li>Influence of Fast Food: </li></ul><ul><li>A typical fast food meal has a very high energy density. It is more than one and a half times higher than an average traditional British meal and two and a half times higher than a traditional African meal. </li></ul><ul><li>Fast food is commonly deep fried, and thereby contains more fat and calories. The cooking oil used to fry the food contains trans fats (in the form of hydrogenated oils) which are damaging to the heart. When served with starchy vegetables such as potatoes (usually deep fried) and sugary soft drink beverages, fast food meals contain a considerable glycemic load. Additionally, fast food may contain unwanted chemical additives hidden and lack proper labeling. </li></ul>Health in the US
  36. 36. <ul><li>Fast Food Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>- Every day about one quarter of the U.S. population eats fast food. </li></ul><ul><li>- Roughly 12% of all American workers have worked at McDonald's. </li></ul><ul><li>- Children often recognize the McDonald's logo before they recognize their own name. </li></ul><ul><li>- American children now get about one quarter of their total vegetable servings in the form of potato chips and French fries. </li></ul><ul><li>- The typical teenage boy in the United States now gets about 10% of his daily calories from soda. </li></ul><ul><li>A fast food soda that sells for $1.29 costs the restaurant about ten cents, a markup of more than 1200 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical fast food hamburger contains meat from dozens or even hundreds of cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>- A new fast food chain opens every 2 hours in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>- Most chains have a turnover ratio of employees of 300-400% every 3-4 months. </li></ul><ul><li>- Two thirds of all employees are under the age of 20. </li></ul><ul><li>- The average consumption of soda for a person per year is 56 Gallons, which is 600 12 oz. cans per person. </li></ul>Health in the US