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Occupational and Environmental Hazards:       the Campaign in Silicon ValleyPresented at the International Symposium on La...
Silicon Valley used to be       known as the“Valley of Heart’s Delight”
Transition from Valley of Hearts    Delight to Silicon Valley• In the 1970s, farming and the canning and  food packaging i...
History of organizing for better conditions• In the mid 1970s, a small group of people  started meeting to discuss concern...
History of organizing for better conditions• Organized an effort to ban the use of TCE• Santa Clara Center for Occupationa...
History of organizing for better conditions• Another early SCCOSH project was  Injured Workers United, a support group  fo...
History of organizing for better conditions1978 Community testing for TCE in breast milk –  organizers use fliers, newspap...
History of organizing for better conditions1981 – Toxic leaks into the water supply discovered at Fairchild  and IBM1982 –...
History of organizing for better conditions1986 - First report of elevated miscarriage and illness rates in clean rooms   ...
Unions   Organizing Silicon Valleys High Tech Workers                   by David Bacon• From the beginning, high tech work...
CAL OSHA report in 1981
Toxic Trouble in Silicon Valley          Newsweek 1984
High-tech Organizer’s Retreat• In 1985 "High-Tech Organizers Retreat" held  in California, brought together twenty labor, ...
AMRC Handbook - 1985
The Reality of            High Tech Impact• Semiconductor workers experience illness  rates 3 times greater than manufactu...
New York Times –  November 10, 1984
Clean rooms and              miscarriages   “ new concerns … may prove a potential black eye   for a high technology indus...
IBM Corporate Mortality File         http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1626450/• IBM maintained records of 30,00...
IBM settles chemical suit             January 23, 2001 Case involved              microchip site workers son•   By Craig W...
Practice precaution: close the gapbetween environmental and workplacePELS68 chemicals known to the State of California toc...
Workplace PELS (if any) for carcinogens and developmental toxics are much weaker than          environmental standards•If ...
Env. STDD              Yield in                     Best OCC STDD   Best Env. STDD  Toxic Agent                           ...
The wake up call !!    The Fairchild Case --Groundwater pollution in Silicon    Valley poisons families
Right-To-Know Grows in         1982
Labor unions were central to SVTC
TRI Releases for 2007           for Selected Electronics Companies                                             Total On-si...
The footprint of high-tech      development
Body Burden(1000+ Chemicals Used in Electronics Production)
Moore’s Law
Apple Campaign
Inside an iPhone
Inside your iPhone
Our movement expands as   Industry moves out of S.V.Global High-Tech Production is    Undergoing the Largest  Industrial E...
Electronics Supply Chain       Research done by Sarah Boyd
International Campaign for    Responsible Technology             (ICRT)Global Symposium on Strategies for a    Sustainable...
International Campaign for       Responsible Technology                (ICRT)              Mission Statement,           ad...
Consumer Education:              The Story of Electronics• The Story of Electronics explores the high-tech  revolutions co...
Delegates to Vienna SAICM  Meeting – March 2011
UN expert meeting charts the way forward on    hazardous chemicals in electronic products Historic meeting addresses entir...
Key Recommendations from        SAICM in ViennaDelegates developed key recommendations:• eliminating chemical hazards duri...
Health-Based Exposure Limits• Governments should formulate, promote, and implement  health-based exposure limits for worke...
Health Surveillance•   Producers and manufacturers, with oversight by the government and the full    participation of work...
Ma Jun’s slide from IPE in China
Electronic Sustainability        CommitmentEach new generation of technicalimprovements in electronic productsshould inclu...
For Further Information:                        Ted Smith –   International Campaign for Responsible Technology;          ...
Ted ppt presentation for international symposium in soeul, korea november 12 2011 final1
Ted ppt presentation for international symposium in soeul, korea november 12 2011 final1
Ted ppt presentation for international symposium in soeul, korea november 12 2011 final1
Ted ppt presentation for international symposium in soeul, korea november 12 2011 final1
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Ted ppt presentation for international symposium in soeul, korea november 12 2011 final1

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Ted ppt presentation for international symposium in soeul, korea november 12 2011 final1

  1. 1. Occupational and Environmental Hazards: the Campaign in Silicon ValleyPresented at the International Symposium on Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Electronics Industry Graduate School of Public Health Seoul National University Seoul, Korea November 12, 2011 Ted Smith, Founder, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition; Electronics TakeBack Coalition; and International Campaign for Responsible Technology www.icrt.co
  2. 2. Silicon Valley used to be known as the“Valley of Heart’s Delight”
  3. 3. Transition from Valley of Hearts Delight to Silicon Valley• In the 1970s, farming and the canning and food packaging industries started to move away• A new industry started to grow up based on new technologies – it became known as the high tech electronics industry and produced semiconductors, printed circuit boards, disk drives and computers
  4. 4. History of organizing for better conditions• In the mid 1970s, a small group of people started meeting to discuss concerns over the chemical-handling aspects of the semiconductor industry and what might be done to raise these issues publicly. The group was called ECOSH, Electronics Committee for Occupational Safety and Health. ECOSH members included electronics workers, occupational nurses, attorneys, industrial hygienists, engineering and medical students, labor, environmental and religious leaders.
  5. 5. History of organizing for better conditions• Organized an effort to ban the use of TCE• Santa Clara Center for Occupational Safety and Health (SCCOSH) was formally organized in 1978. ECOSH continued as a SCCOSH project into the early 1980s, gaining recognition for a vigorous and largely successful campaign to ban TCE as well as energetic support and advocacy for many workers trying to win better conditions for themselves and co-workers.
  6. 6. History of organizing for better conditions• Another early SCCOSH project was Injured Workers United, a support group for workers already affected by chemical exposures, trying to secure fair compensation, decent medical care and retraining. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC) also started out as an early project of SCCOSH.
  7. 7. History of organizing for better conditions1978 Community testing for TCE in breast milk – organizers use fliers, newspaper, radio, phone hot line - 500 people are tested for TCE1978 Campaign to Ban TCE (Cal-OSHA lowers PEL from 100 to 25 ppm.)1980 NIOSH HHE finds narcotic and irritant symptoms in clean room environment; all solvent exposures below PELs, yet workers are getting sick.1981 HESIS reproductive hazard alert on glycol ethers
  8. 8. History of organizing for better conditions1981 – Toxic leaks into the water supply discovered at Fairchild and IBM1982 – Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition formed as a project of SCCOSH1983 Cal- OSHA semiconductor study does not investigate reproductive and cancer hazards1984 - “The not so clean business of making chips” by Dr. Joseph LaDou published in Technology Review from MIT1985 Media charge chip makers with keeping two sets of records for toxic exposures and systematically underreporting # of affected workers.
  9. 9. History of organizing for better conditions1986 - First report of elevated miscarriage and illness rates in clean rooms reported at Digital Equipment Corporation1986 - IBM workers ask about cancer in clean rooms. IBM says ‘no problem’1992 – Results of epidemiological reports by IBM and Semiconductor Industry Association report high rates of miscarriages1992 - First call for replacement of ethylene glycol ethers: “Campaign to end the Miscarriage of Justice”2000s – HealthWatch organizes WE LEAP OSH trainings for 12 ethnic groups, including Chinese, Cambodian, Indonesian, Indian, Korean, Latino, Vietnamese, etc.
  10. 10. Unions Organizing Silicon Valleys High Tech Workers by David Bacon• From the beginning, high tech workers had to face an industry-wide anti-union policy. Robert Noyce, who participated in the invention of the transistor, and later became a co-founder of Intel Corp., declared that "remaining non-union is an essential for survival for most of our companies. If we had the work rules that unionized companies have, wed all go out of business. This is a very high priority for management here. We have to retain flexibility in operating our companies. The great hope for our nation is to avoid those deep, deep divisions between workers and management which can paralyze action."
  11. 11. CAL OSHA report in 1981
  12. 12. Toxic Trouble in Silicon Valley Newsweek 1984
  13. 13. High-tech Organizer’s Retreat• In 1985 "High-Tech Organizers Retreat" held in California, brought together twenty labor, occupational health, and environ-mental organizers. The Integrated Circuit, a national coalition, formed out of the retreat and resulted in the publication of the newsletter Around the Circuit. This later evolved into Campaign for Responsible Technology (CRT), then ICRT.
  14. 14. AMRC Handbook - 1985
  15. 15. The Reality of High Tech Impact• Semiconductor workers experience illness rates 3 times greater than manufacturing workers in other industries• In 3 epidemiological studies, women who worked in fabrication rooms were found to have rates of miscarriage of 40% or more above non-manufacturing workers• Silicon Valley has more EPA Superfund sites than any other area in the USA
  16. 16. New York Times – November 10, 1984
  17. 17. Clean rooms and miscarriages “ new concerns … may prove a potential black eye for a high technology industry that … sought to portray itself as clean and with little impact on the environment.Women exposed to certain chemicals … in the nation’s semiconductor factories face a significantly higher risk of miscarriage, a broad industry-financed study has found. The study is the 3rd in 4 years to find that … glycol ethers have toxic effects. “ Oct 12 and Dec. 4, 1992
  18. 18. IBM Corporate Mortality File http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1626450/• IBM maintained records of 30,000 workers that identified cause of death over 30 years• Records were analyzed by Dr. Richard Clapp, epidemiologist at Boston Univ.• Breast cancer deaths in women at IBM were 2.42 times the expected number• Similar findings for brain cancer, kidney cancer, non-Hodgikins lymphoma
  19. 19. IBM settles chemical suit January 23, 2001 Case involved microchip site workers son• By Craig Wolf Poughkeepsie Journal A lawsuit described as the first to test claims that chemicals in a microchip plant could be harmful to people has been settled, the parties said Monday. IBM Corp. and attorneys for Zachary Ruffing, a 15-year-old whose parents both had worked in the 1980s at IBMs East Fishkill plant, confirmed that an agreement had been reached.• Settlements typically involve payment by the defendant. Neither side would disclose what IBM or two chemical companies involved in the suit would pay.• IBM said human factors played a role in the decision. It still denies guilt.• I think its an enormously important case, partly because of the really serious damage suffered by Zach Ruffing and his family, and partly because this is the first major test case of its kind involved the high-tech industry, said Ted Smith, executive director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition in San Jose, Calif.
  20. 20. Practice precaution: close the gapbetween environmental and workplacePELS68 chemicals known to the State of California tocause cancer or reproductive harm are totallyunregulated by Cal-OSHA or regulated only for non-cancer effectsThere is a huge disparity between workplace andenvironmental protections against carcinogens anddevelopmental toxicants everywhere.
  21. 21. Workplace PELS (if any) for carcinogens and developmental toxics are much weaker than environmental standards•If the air you breathe at work contains 1 ppmbenzene, you are getting over 500 times thedosage set by EPA to protect the mostvulnerable level of benzene with every breathyou take (industrial health standards are notset to prevent birth defects in workers kids)•If you breathe1 ppm of benzene at work, ittakes only 166 hours to get a complete lifetimedose (using the federal public health exposurelimit. )
  22. 22. Env. STDD Yield in Best OCC STDD Best Env. STDD Toxic Agent converted to 8 improved worker 8 hr. TWA NSRL or MCL hr. TWA protection 1 part per Benzene 7 ug/day 1 part per billion 1,000:1 million TCE 25 ppm 80 ug/day 7 ppb 3,571:1 Perc 25 ppm 14 ug/day .3 ppb 8,333:1Methylene Chloride 25 ppm 0.005 mg/L 1 ppb 25,000:1
  23. 23. The wake up call !! The Fairchild Case --Groundwater pollution in Silicon Valley poisons families
  24. 24. Right-To-Know Grows in 1982
  25. 25. Labor unions were central to SVTC
  26. 26. TRI Releases for 2007 for Selected Electronics Companies Total On-site Disposal or Total Off-site Disposal Total On- and Off-site DisposalFacility City State Other Releases or Other Releases or Other ReleasesIBM CORP HOPEWELL JUNCTION NY 1074661 22249.4 1096911SILTRONIC CORP. PORTLAND OR 635958 3.3 635961SANYO SOLAR (USA)LLC CARSON CA 8069 234714 242783IBM CORP ESSEX JUNCTION VT 185718 2645.1034 188363SONY ELECTRONICSINC. DOTHAN AL 74820 16891.52 91711MICRON TECHNOLOGYINC BOISE ID 88375 864.3 89239PHILIPS LUMILEDSLIGHTING CO SAN JOSE CA 73231 0 73231TEXAS INSTRUMENTSINC DALLAS TX 23652 44124.89 67776DU PONT ELECTRONICSMICROCIRCU ITSINDUSTRIES LTD. MANATI PR 1428 34679.232 36107INTEL CORP RIO RANCHO NM 18193 3589.9 21783
  27. 27. The footprint of high-tech development
  28. 28. Body Burden(1000+ Chemicals Used in Electronics Production)
  29. 29. Moore’s Law
  30. 30. Apple Campaign
  31. 31. Inside an iPhone
  32. 32. Inside your iPhone
  33. 33. Our movement expands as Industry moves out of S.V.Global High-Tech Production is Undergoing the Largest Industrial Expansion in the History of the World
  34. 34. Electronics Supply Chain Research done by Sarah Boyd
  35. 35. International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT)Global Symposium on Strategies for a Sustainable High-Tech Industry November 14-17, 2002 San Jose, CA http://www.svtc.org/icrt/index.html
  36. 36. International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT) Mission Statement, adopted November 16, 2002• We are an international solidarity network that promotes corporate and government accountability in the global electronics industry. We are united by our concern for the lifecycle impacts of this industry on health, the environment and workers rights.
  37. 37. Consumer Education: The Story of Electronics• The Story of Electronics explores the high-tech revolutions collateral damage—25 million tons of e-waste and counting, poisoned workers and a public left holding the bill. Host Annie Leonard takes viewers from the mines and factories where our gadgets begin to the horrific backyard recycling shops in China where many end up. The film concludes with a call for a green race to the top where designers compete to make long-lasting, toxic-free products that are fully and easily recyclable.• http://www.storyofstuff.org/movies-all/story-of-electronics/
  38. 38. Delegates to Vienna SAICM Meeting – March 2011
  39. 39. UN expert meeting charts the way forward on hazardous chemicals in electronic products Historic meeting addresses entire lifecycle of electronicsFor the first time, more than 100 experts from around the world gathered in Vienna, Austria to make recommendations for a UN process on reducing and eliminating hazardous chemicals in the design, manufacturing, and end of life stages of electronic products. Concerns over toxic exposures during manufacturing, use, and recycling of electronic products provoked governments, the private sector, and public interest NGOs from around the world to call for the meeting at a global conference in 2009.
  40. 40. Key Recommendations from SAICM in ViennaDelegates developed key recommendations:• eliminating chemical hazards during design;• phasing-out hazardous substances;• improving information transparency and flow;• ensuring equal protection of workers, communities, and consumers;• preventing export of hazardous electronic wastes from developed to developing countries;• and controlling export and import of near-end- of-life equipment.
  41. 41. Health-Based Exposure Limits• Governments should formulate, promote, and implement health-based exposure limits for workers. These exposure limits are to be based on thorough and adequate hazard testing of all chemicals and mixtures used and produced throughout the life cycle. Producers, manufacturers and suppliers of chemicals are responsible for performing these tests. Exposure limit values should be protective of the most vulnerable populations, and should provide equal protection in the workplace and the community; In cases where data are not yet sufficient to develop a health-based exposure limit value, the precautionary principle should be applied, namely by eliminating exposure to chemicals or reducing it as low as possible.
  42. 42. Health Surveillance• Producers and manufacturers, with oversight by the government and the full participation of worker and community representatives should ensure (and report the results to appropriate governmental authorities of): – comprehensive, occupationally relevant health surveillance for all of its workers; – comprehensive ongoing industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring to measure the release and exposure to all hazardous materials used in manufacturing and production; – access to these data (and adequate funding) to ensure comprehensive and independent epidemiological assessments of worker health; – Action plans to preserve and protect worker health based on these data. – In situations where pollution from electronics production facilities has been found in surrounding communities, the manufacturers and producers should cooperate with health researchers and investigators to assess and control adverse health impacts, especially with respect to vulnerable populations.
  43. 43. Ma Jun’s slide from IPE in China
  44. 44. Electronic Sustainability CommitmentEach new generation of technicalimprovements in electronic productsshould include parallel and proportionalimprovements in environmental, healthand safety as well as social justiceattributes. Adopted by the Trans-Atlantic Network for Clean Production, May 16, 1999
  45. 45. For Further Information: Ted Smith – International Campaign for Responsible Technology; Electronics TakeBack Coalitiontsmith@igc.org; +408-242-6707www.icrt.co; www.electronicstakeback.com/home/http://www.archive.org/details/pioneeractivistsil00smitrichhttp://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt2b69r7hf;style=oac4;view=dsc

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