The number of distance courses is growing and an increasing number of institutions are introducing online courses or blending more conventional courses with online elements. (Hampel, 2010, p. 150)
Language as a subject to be talked about? Active, productive use of the new language Language learning as dialogic with authentic language in use as the primary mediating tool for learning Directly comprehending and responding appropriately to language – conversation – is central to all developmental processes.
When ELLs have access to online tools, they are motivated to practice English outside the classroom (Aydin, 2007; Colombo & Colombo, 2007; Son, 2007). The online tools improve the listening and speaking skills of young learners.
Convenience Connectivity Membership Authentic audience Tailored audiences Strategies to compensate for lack of non-verbal info
Richness of information (links, multimedia) Time to focus and review Time to compose, resources to compose Time and opportunity to reflect Opportunity to witness and track learning Opportunity to demonstrate learning
Providing sufficient comprehensible input to “trigger” acquisitional processes Involved in real communication Paying attention to linguistic form
Approach: › theories about the nature of language learning › the possibilities that the technology affords Design › Syllabus › Types of tasks › Learner and teacher roles Procedure: the actual implementation of the tasks
Cognitive SLA: input, interaction, and output Sociocultural theories › Mediation: through interaction, language, tasks, or technology › scaffolding
Goal: e.g. developing writing skills with Forums Task type: Individual tasks (e.g. information gathering online) feed into interactive tasks (e.g. discussion of information in a forum) Input: verbal and visual modalities › Links to websites › Preset discussion questions in forums › Student contribution
http://www.voxopop.com/ A voice-based e-learning tool E.g., What’s your favorite …? (http://www.voxopop.com/topic/baf4d a6d-ff57-4c40-9550-0386d216a841)
http://voicethread.com/ E.g., Our Alphabet Book (http://voicethread.com/?#q+children+ english.b856240.i4560642) E.g. reader’s theater (http://youtu.be/5dTZI1MEH3I)
Calling attention to forms Calling attention to lexis Corralling Saturating Using linguistic traps Modeling Providing explicit feedback Providing implicit feedback
Task-level attention to form › a role paly activity in which students are asked to practice, then record and post a conversation. › The teacher can review the recordings, insert audio comments and corrections, and leave written comments and questions.
Incidental attention to forms › addressing meaning, pronunciation, or intonation › Technology: Voxopop › E.g. What is your favorite car? Why?
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “calling attention to forms.”
Task-level attention to lexis › Using intonation to draw learners’ attention to a new lexical item › T: It’s too chilly to go swimming. › Using both visual and voice emphases › Technology: Voicethread › Visual and voice: SUNNY and IT’S SUNNY.
Incidental attention to lexis › Repeating the word five or ten times, use it in a sentence, then use it in a question. › Focusing on lexical items with the help of both voice and text. › E.g. playing a question and answer game on Voxopop
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “calling attention to lexis.”
Task-level corralling › Using an audio dubbing assignment to corrall learners into using a focal form or lexical item › Posting audio post assignment of a direction asking and giving role paly › Tell the story about this picture using your own voice (Voicethread)
Incidental corralling The use of voice and intonation E.g. T: You turn right at ? / So, you turn right at mmmm Street?
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “corralling.”
Oral repetition E.g. Yes, you can’t depend on a bus schedule, Bus schedules are almost always wrong. I have a bus schedule that I can’t depend on to come to class.
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “saturating.”
T: What is the girl doing? The girl is skiing.
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “using linguistic trap.”
Visual modeling › Video 1: My apologies. › Video 2: I am very sorry. › Video 3: Pardon me. › Video 4: Please forgive me. › E.g. It’s time for the bus. (http://api.vizlingo.com:8080/vizings/17/7b/e d/177bed13d094e0517c3c8b446d5ced67.m p4)
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “modeling.”
Provided silently via visual markings and cues Select to attend to the kinds of explicit feedback (aural, visual, textual, rules, or examples) E.g. adding a link to a grammar web site, reference to video materials on the Internet, reference to online exercises
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “providing explicit feedback.”
S: I drinked tea yesterday. T: I drank coffee. I don’t like tea at all. Did you drink coffee, too?
Based on the textbook, you come up with an example that supports “providing implicit feedback.”
Not only for making resources available to learners but also for offering students and teachers a choice of online communication tools. Video-based know-how tutorials (http://www.teachertrainingvideos.com/ moodle1/index.html)
Instructions/guidelines/time management › Rules for synchronous participation › Specify timescale for activities › Signposts to key aspects of reading materials › Clearly signalled closing stage
Forums and other tools › Clear guidance on expected frequency of participation › Separate forums for each task › Opportunities for individuals to individual communication › Easy access to instructions for use of less familiar tools › Opportunity to experiment with new tools
Collaboration and sense of community › Self-introduction › Group formation › Common goals › A sense of community