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Us industrial base_analysis_for_space_systems

  1. 1. U.S. Industrial Base Analysis for Space Systems Defense Manufacturing Conference 2011, Anaheim, CA November 29, 2011
  2. 2. Purposeª  Quick turnaround assessment of space industrial base ª  Customer: Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy ª  This assessment is part of the initial phase of the sector-by- sector tier-by-tier (S2T2) Department of Defense (DoD) assessment of the industrial base ª  The initial phase of S2T2 covers 8 sectors ª  The Tauri Group assessed the space sectorª  Objective was to provide greater insight into supply chain tiers of the space industrial base, particularly lower tiers and interdependenciesª  This briefing is a preliminary overview only – Final assessments will be issued by MIBP 2
  3. 3. Eight study topics were specifiedª  Topic 1 – U.S. space industry supply chain mapª  Topic 2 – U.S. space industry sole suppliers, potential bottlenecks, and workforce sensitivitiesª  Topic 3 – U.S. space industry supply chain interdependenciesª  Topic 4 – U.S. space industry innovation and future design capabilitiesª  Topic 5 – U.S. space industry supply chain working capital and investment capitalª  Topic 6 – U.S. space industry supply chain relationships across military, civil, and commercial interestsª  Topic 7 – Globalization of space industry supply chainª  Topic 8 – Other factors to consider 3
  4. 4. Methodologyª  Reviewed over fifty studies and relevant documents to identify risk areas and issues in the supply chain, components in the tiers of the supply chain, and companies in risk areasª  Conducted approximately 90 targeted interviewsª  Summarized previously identified supply chain concerns related to the space industrial base and identified new risk areasª  Researched major space manufacturers and companies associated with identified technology risk areasª  For each risk area, we identified suppliers, where the risk area was in the supply chain, and mapped the risk area to rest of the supply chainª  For suppliers in risk areas, we identified other lines of business that the company had and the degree of the company s diversification outside the space business 4
  5. 5. Topic 1: Supply chain at risk categoriesª  At Risk – Parts of the supply chain that are dependent on a sole supplier or constrained competition, may become bottlenecks, or have potential financial or workforce issues.ª  Green – Multiple suppliers and suppliers that are financially healthy, have little or no potential to create bottlenecks, and have no workforce issues.ª  Yellow – Constrained competition due to limited (fewer than four) number of suppliers, suppliers with a potential to create bottlenecks, and those with workforce issues.ª  Red – Sole suppliers, suppliers with high potential to create bottlenecks, and those with significant workforce issues.ª  Black – Suppliers that are bankrupt, exiting the market, or supplies are no longer available. 5
  6. 6. Topic 1: Overview of satellite supply chain elements from prime contractors to material suppliers Tier  5   Tier  4   Tier  3   Tier  2   Tier  1   Atmospheric  probes   Al8meters  Alloys   Balloons   Antennas  Ammonia   Ball  screws   Beacon  tracking  and  ranging  systems  Anodes   Communica8ons  feeds   Chemistry  analyzers  Atmospheric  nitrogen   Satellite   Communica8ons  panels   Clocks  Atmospheric  oxygen   Communica8ons  reflectors   Command  &  Control  Systems  Capacitors   Dust  meters   Command  receivers  and  telemetry  transmi[ers  Carbon  fillers   Focal  plane  arrays   Commercial  encryp8on  devices  Carbonized  cloth   Harmonic  drive  transmissions   Diaphragm  propellant  tanks  Cast  metal  parts   Hemispheric  resona8ng  gyros  (HRGs)   Gamma  ray  telescopes  Cathodes   Ion  counters   Gimbal  assemblies  Coa8ngs  Composite  material   Landing  bags   GPS  receivers   Satellite  Payload   Heat  exchangers  Couplings   Laser  resona8ng  gyros  (LRGs)   Lidar  op8cal  sensors   Heaters     (Instrumenta8on)  Diodes   Momentum  wheels   Hold-­‐down  and  deployment  systems  Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Momentum  wheels  plaVorms   Interferometers  Fasteners   Non-­‐sensi8ve  structural  panels   Infrared  imagers  FiAngs   Op8cal  encoders   Lithium  Ion  ba[eries    Gaskets   Orbital  analysis  soXware  for  GEO  satellites   Low-­‐thrust  propulsion  devices  and  components  Hoses   Parachutes   Magnetometers  HTPB   Passive  RF  filtering/coupling  devices   Microscopes  Methane   Rate  sensors   Microwave  telescopes  Nano-­‐phase  metals  (Al,  etc.)   Reac8on  wheels   Mul8spectral  op8cal  sensors  Natural  gas   Resolvers   Nickel  cadmium  ba[eries    Pipes   RF  transponder  chains   Nickel  hydrogen  ba[eries    Poten8ometers   Sensors  (pressure,  temperature,  etc)   Non-­‐diaphragm  propellant  tanks  Precision  ball  bearings   Satellite  Bus   Slip  ring  assemblies   On-­‐board  computers  Rayon   Solar  cells   Op8cal  imagers/telescopes  (pan/hyper/mul8)  Resin   Torque   Plasma  detectors  Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Transformers   Power  distribu8on  assemblies  Sodium  perchlorate  or  chlorine  Weave  cloth   Travelling  wave  tubes  (TWT)   Power  regula8on  electronics   Subsystems:     Preamplifiers  Wires/wire  harnesses       Pressurant  tanks   Power   Processors,  routers/hubs  for  data  distribu8on     Radio  frequency  receivers   Propulsion       Radiometers   Sample  retrievers   Structure       Solar  array  assemblies   Thermal   Spectrometers       Spinner  motor  drivers   A5tude  control   Sta8onary  plasma  thrusters     Star  trackers   Telemetry  and  command     Sun  sensors     Travelling  wave  tube  amplifiers  (TWTA)   TTC&R  antennas   6 Ultraviolet  telescopes   X-­‐ray  telescopes  
  7. 7. Topic 1: Satellites – Red and yellow risk areas in supply chain Tier  5   Tier  4   Tier  3   Tier  2   Tier  1  Alloys   Amplifiers   Al8meters   Antennas   Power  Anodes   Atmospheric  probes  Cadmium  zinc  telluride  detectors   Balloons   Beacon  tracking  and  ranging  systems     Chemistry  analyzers  Capacitors   Ball  screws   Propulsion   Satellite  Bus  Cast  metal  parts   Clocks   Command  &  Control  Systems  Cathodes   Communica8ons  feeds   Command  receivers  and  telemetry  transmi[ers   Commercial  encryp8on  devices    Coa8ngs   Communica8ons  panels  Composite  materials   Communica8ons  reflectors   Diaphragm  propellant  tanks   Structure  Crystal  scin8llators   Comparators   Gamma  ray  telescopes  Couplings   Converters   Gimbal  assemblies     GPS  receivers  Diodes    Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Dust  meters   Focal  plane  arrays   Heat  exchangers   Thermal  Fasteners   Harmonic  drive  transmissions   Heaters      FiAngs   Hemispheric  resona8ng  gyros  (HRGs)   Hold-­‐down  and  deployment  systems  Gaskets   Ion  counters   Interferometers   AAtude  control   Infrared  imagers  Hoses  Mercury  cadmium  thelluride  detectors   Landing  bags   Laser  resona8ng  gyros  (LRGs)   Lithium  Ion  ba[eries      Op8cal  solar  reflectors  Photomul8pliers   Lidar  op8cal  sensors   Momentum  wheels   Low-­‐thrust  propulsion  devices  and  components   Magnetometers   Telemetry  and   Satellite  Pipes   Momentum  wheels  plaVorms   Microscopes   command  Poten8ometers   Non-­‐sensi8ve  structural  panels   Microwave  telescopes  Precision  ball  bearings   Op8cal  encoders   Mul8spectral  op8cal  sensors  Pressure  transducers   Orbital  analysis  soXware  for  GEO  satellites   Nickel  cadmium  ba[eries    Propellants:  Dinitrogen  Tetroxide  (MON-­‐3)   Parachutes   Nickel  hydrogen  ba[eries    Propellants:  Monomethylhydrazine  (MMH)   Passive  RF  filtering/coupling  devices   Non-­‐diaphragm  propellant  tanks  Propellants:  Oxidizers   Rate  sensors   On-­‐board  computers  Propellants:  Pressurants   Reac8on  wheels   Op8cal  imagers/telescopes  (pan/hyper/mul8)   Plasma  detectors  Readout  integrated  circuits   Resolvers   Power  distribu8on  assemblies   Satellite  Payload  Resistors   RF  transponder  chains  Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Sensors  (pressure,  temperature,  etc)   Power  regula8on  electronics   (Instrumenta8on)  Solar  cell  cover  glass   Slip  ring  assemblies   Preamplifiers  Thermal  blankets   Solar  cells   Pressurant  tanks  Thermal  insula8on   Switches   Processors,  routers/hubs  for  data  distribu8on  Thermistors   Torque  rods   Radio  frequency  receivers  Transistors   Transformers   Radiometers  Wires/wire  harnesses     Sample  retrievers       Solar  array  assemblies     Travelling  wave  tubes  (TWT)   Spectrometers     Spinner  motor  drivers     Sta8onary  plasma  thrusters     Scaleable  accuracy  star  trackers     Sun  sensors     Travelling  wave  tube  amplifiers  (TWTA)     TTC&R  antennas   Ultraviolet  telescopes   X-­‐ray  telescopes   7
  8. 8. Topic 1: Overview of launch vehicle supply chain elements from prime contractors to material suppliers Tier  5   Tier  4   Tier  3   Tier  2   Tier  1  Alloys   Accelerometers   Airframes  Ammonia   Ammonium  perchlorate   Auxiliary  power  units  Anodes   Amplifiers   Ba[eries  Atmospheric  nitrogen   Ball  screws   Computers   Liquid  rocket  engines  Atmospheric  oxygen   Comparators   Control  electronics  Capacitors   Converters   Doors  and  panels  Carbon  fillers   Engine  actuators   Engine  combus8on  chambers   Payload  fairing  Carbonized  cloth   Engine  filters   Engine  controllers  Cast  metal  parts   Engine  gimbal  actuators   Engine  heat  exchangers   Payload  adapter  Cathodes   Engine  gimbal  assemblies   Engine  manifolds  Coa8ngs   Engine  igniters  and  catalysts   Engine  nozzles  Composite  material   Engine  injectors   Engine  preburners  Couplings  Diodes   Engine  sensors   Engine  valves   Engine  propellant  pumps   Fairing  sec8ons   Power  Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Fairing  separa8on  devices   Fairings  Fasteners   Hydraulic  reservoir   Fins   Guidance,  naviga8on  and  FiAngs   Hydraulic  filters   Flight  control  surfaces  Gaskets   Hydraulic  quick  disconnects   Flight  termina8on  systems   control  (GNC)  Hoses   Hydraulic  accumulator   Iner8al  flight  systems  HTPB   Hydraulic  valves   Interstages   Flight  controls  Methane   Hydraulic  system  electric  heaters   Landing  gears  Nano-­‐phase  metals  (Al,  etc.)   Hydraulic  actuators   Moun8ng  structures  Natural  gas   Hydraulic  pump   Parachutes   Structures  Payload  clamp  bands   Hydraulic  flow  restrictor   Pressurants  (N,  He,  etc.)  Pipes   Hydraulic  connectors   Pressurant  tanks  Poten8ometers   Hydraulic  plumbing   Propellant  tanks  Precision  ball  bearings   Hydraulic  system  insula8on   Propellant:  Fuel  (LH,  etc.)  Rayon   Hydraulic  water  spray  boiler   Propellant:  Oxidizers  (LOX,  etc.)  Resin   GPS  receivers   Propellant:  Solid  (ammonium  perchlorate  Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Gyroscopes   composite  propellant)  Sodium  perchlorate  or  chlorine   Ini8ators   Range  safety  systems  Weave  cloth   Lithium-­‐ion  cells   Radar  al8meters  Wires/wire  harnesses   Nickel-­‐cadmium  cells   Rayon-­‐carbon  cloth  phenolic   Skirts   Solid  motor  casings   Propulsion   Ring  laser  gyros   Star  trackers   Silver-­‐zinc  cells   Telemetry  electronics   Stage  separa8on  devices   Wings   Vehicle  sensors                 8
  9. 9. Topic 1: Launch vehicles – Red and yellow risk areas in supply chain Tier  5   Tier  4   Tier  3   Tier  2   Tier  1  Alloys   Accelerometers   Airframes   Power  Ammonia   Ammonium  perchlorate   Auxiliary  power  units  Anodes   Amplifiers   Ba[eries  Atmospheric  nitrogen   Ball  screws   Computers   Liquid  rocket  engines  Atmospheric  oxygen   Comparators   Control  electronics  Capacitors   Converters   Doors  and  panels  Carbon  fillers   Engine  actuators   Engine  combus8on  chambers   Guidance,  Carbonized  cloth   Engine  filters   Engine  controllers  Cast  metal  parts   Engine  gimbal  actuators   Engine  heat  exchangers   naviga8on  and  Cathodes  Coa8ngs   Engine  gimbal  assemblies   Engine  igniters  and  catalysts   Engine  manifolds   Engine  nozzles   control  (GNC)  Composite  material   Engine  injectors   Engine  preburners  Couplings   Engine  sensors   Engine  propellant  pumps  Diodes   Engine  valves   Fairing  sec8ons  Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Fairing  separa8on  devices   Fairings  Fasteners  FiAngs   Hydraulic  reservoir   Hydraulic  filters   Fins   Flight  control  surfaces   Flight  controls   Launch  Gaskets  Hoses  HTPB   Hydraulic  quick  disconnects   Hydraulic  accumulator   Hydraulic  valves   Flight  termina8on  systems   Iner8al  flight  systems   Interstages   vehicle  Methane   Hydraulic  system  electric  heaters   Landing  gears  Nano-­‐phase  metals  (Al,  etc.)  Natural  gas   Hydraulic  actuators   Hydraulic  pump   Moun8ng  structures   Parachutes   Payload  fairing  Payload  clamp  bands   Hydraulic  flow  restrictor   Pressurants  (N,  He,  etc.)  Pipes   Hydraulic  connectors   Pressurant  tanks  Poten8ometers   Hydraulic  plumbing   Propellant  tanks  Precision  ball  bearings   Hydraulic  system  insula8on   Propellant:  Fuel  (LH,  etc.)  Rayon   Hydraulic  water  spray  boiler   Propellant:  Oxidizers  (LOX,  etc.)  Resin   GPS  receivers   Propellant:  Solid  (ammonium  perchlorate   Payload  adapter  Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Gyroscopes   composite  propellant)  Sodium  perchlorate  or  chlorine   Ini8ators   Range  safety  systems  Weave  cloth   Lithium-­‐ion  cells   Radar  al8meters  Wires/wire  harnesses   Nickel-­‐cadmium  cells   Skirts   Rayon-­‐carbon  cloth  phenolic   Solid  motor  casings   Ring  laser  gyros   Star  trackers   Silver-­‐zinc  cells   Telemetry  electronics   Propulsion   Stage  separa8on  devices   Wings   Vehicle  sensors                 Structures   9
  10. 10. Topic 2: Summary of space technology risk areasª Reviewed 135 companies that manufacture space hardware, focusing on 117 U.S.companies that provide technologies identified as supply chain risksª There are 11 areas of high risk due to absence of U.S. suppliers or single U.S.supplier ª  6 were previously identified in reports and are or have been addressed under Title III authority ª  5 are newly identifiedª There are 17 areas at risk due to limited suppliers, suppliers with a potential tocreate bottlenecks, those with workforce issues, and anticipated cost increases ª  8 were previously identified in reports and are or have been addressed under Title III authority ª  9 are newly identified ª  Workforce was rarely identified as a supply chain risk ª  Over three-quarters of at risk technologies are due to limited number of U.S. suppliers (2-3) 10
  11. 11. Executive Summary – Topic 2 Table of high risk (red) technologies Workforce Satellite or U.S. Sole Degree of Technology Sensitivities/ No U.S. Supplier Launch Vehicle Suppliers Diversification Bottlenecks U.S. stockpile; Optical solar reflectors* SAT one foreign supplier U.S. stockpile; Solar cell cover glass* SAT one foreign supplier Space-qualified cadmium-zinc telluride SAT V detectors* Space-qualified harmonic drive SAT and LV V transmissions Space-qualified optical encoders SAT and LV V Long lead Space-qualified potentiometers SAT and LV V time Space-qualified slip ring assemblies SAT and LV V Space-qualified torque rods SAT V Space-qualified travelling wave tubes* SAT V Ammonium perchlorate (AP)* LV V Rayon-based carbon cloth phenolic* LV Stockpile Reliant on space business Significant space business Significant non-space business*Technologies  previously  iden3fied  in  industrial  base  reports  and  surveys.   11
  12. 12. Executive Summary – Topic 2 Table of at risk (yellow) technologies Satellite or Launch Constrained Competition Workforce Sensitivities/ Technology Cost Issues Vehicle (<4 U.S. Suppliers) Bottlenecks Precision ball bearings SAT and LV V Long lead time High cost compared to Reaction wheels SAT non-U.S. providers Scaleable accuracy star trackers* SAT V High cost compared to Space-qualified (SQ) ball screws SAT and LV V non-U.S. providers SQ diodes* SAT and LV Long lead time SQ focal plane arrays* SAT V High cost compared to SQ GPS receivers SAT and LV V non-U.S. providers Insufficient U.S.-space-qualified SQ lithium-ion batteries* SAT and LV Li-ion processing SQ mercury-cadmium telluride detectors* SAT V SQ readout integrated circuits* SAT V High cost compared to SQ resolvers SAT and LV V non-U.S. providers SQ solar cells* SAT V SQ transistors SAT and LV V Long lead time High cost compared to Sun sensors (type of optical imager)* SAT non-U.S. providers Questions about future Liquid rocket engines LV V Workforce costs after Shuttle Liquid rocket engine propellant pumps LV V Metal powder for solid propellant LV V 12*Technologies  previously  iden3fied  in  industrial  base  reports  and  surveys.  
  13. 13. Topic 3: Space supplier interdependenciesª  Prime contractors for satellites and launch vehicles depend on the same sole source supplier for components ª  For satellites there are 8 single suppliers providing components to a variety of buses and payloads ª  For launch vehicles there is a single supplier for ammonium perchlorate and no supplier of rayon-based carbon cloth phenolic ª  Four U.S. sole suppliers of space-qualified components common to both satellites and launch vehiclesª  Launch facilities and test facilities are shared 13
  14. 14. Topic 4: Innovation and future design capabilitiesª  A complete look at this question was beyond the scope of this project. Our analysis did result in several observations:ª  Historically, R&D developments related to satellite manufacturing are conveyed from DoD satellite projects to the commercial satellite sector through the supply chain ª  DoD leads the commercial sector in innovation in areas such as imagery, ruggedization, and miniaturization ª  The commercial sector leads in innovation in consumer-driven areas, such as value-added services and hand-held devicesª  Innovation in the launch vehicle sector is largely driven by process or material improvements arising in the commercial sector (often non- space commercial sector) rather than from DoDª  Lower tier companies have indicated that the U.S. Government and Tier 1 companies are less willing to take risk on innovative or unproven technologies 14
  15. 15. Topic 5: Supply chain working capital and investment capitalª  Space sector less affected by the credit crunch and financial crisis than other industries ª  Space has historically been a less attractive investment for most equity firms ª  Low margins ª  Capital intensive ª  Low industry growth ª  Few consumer markets ª  Less benefit for space from financial booms, less exposure to financial retractionsª  Exception – commercial satellite servicesª  Working capital ª  Asset-based (rather than cash-flow-based) financing is typical for space industry ª  Credit crunch hit cash-flow businesses significantly harderª  Financing issues in various tiers ª  No company specifically identified working capital, credit crunch, or financial crisis as a concern ª  Because Tier 1 and sometimes Tier 2 companies typically hold the government prime contract, less money flows to the lower tiers when government budgets tighten. ª  Dynamics of contract relationships can be less favorable for lower tier companies ª  Tier 1: very effective contracting offices; paid by the U.S. Government quickly ª  Lower tier suppliers are more likely to have cash flow issues ª  Possible working capital deficit for low tier suppliers 15
  16. 16. Topic 6: Relationships across military, civil, and commercialinterestsª Satellites ª  Satellite manufacturers typically serve multiple markets ª  Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital Sciences manufacture military, civil, and commercial satellites ª  SS/Loral makes satellites for the commercial and civil sectors ª  ATK, Ball, and Northrop Grumman manufacture government civil and military satellites ª  Military, civil, and commercial satellites generally use the same standard buses ª  Satellite instrumentation/payloads are differentiated across sectors, reflecting specialized needs ª  There are significant areas of cross-over usage of satellite services between sectors ª  DoD purchases commercial communication satellite bandwidth ª  Commercial users rely on DoD GPS satellites ª  Of the 264 satellites and spacecraft made by major U.S. manufacturers and launched from 2001 to 2010, 132 (50%) were commercial, 59 (22%) government civil, and 73 (28%) militaryª Launch vehicles ª  None of the U.S. launch vehicles are strictly for commercial launches ª  The supply chain for U.S. launch vehicles is integrated; essentially the same configurations are used for military, civil, and commercial launches (with the exception of payload-specific elements) ª  Of the 150 launches (2001-2010) by major U.S. launch providers (excluding NASA- operated Shuttle launches) 27 (18%) carried commercial payloads, 53 (35%) government civil payloads, and 70 (47%) military payloads ª  Space Shuttle retirement and the cancellation of the Constellation Program ª  Department of Commerce and NASA extensively studied the effects of the above on the supply chain 16
  17. 17. Topic 7: Globalization of space industry supply chainDiscuss the level of globalization among suppliers and potential suppliers in the spacesector. Highlight any especially desirable or undesirable features of globalization in thissector. Level of globalization of satellite and launch vehicle manufacturing Military Civil Commercial LOW MODERATE MODERATE-HIGH Military satellites almost Payload electronics or entire payloads Satellite entirely U.S.-built. Exceptions Often, NASA satellites and are often made by European and/or include cover glass and spacecraft will feature Manufacturing optical solar reflectors made in collaborative systems with Japanese companies. U.S.-built satellite buses provided for satellites primed by the U.K.; IHI Aerospace Europe, Japan, and other European, and, historically, Canadian (Japan) liquid apogee engine countries. and Japanese companies. on AEHF satellite. MODERATE MODERATE MODERATE Atlas V and Delta IV are used for military, civil, and commercial missions. Atlas V incorporates Russian RD-180 engines and components from Europe. Delta IV incorporates engine valves from Japan and Launch Vehicle components from Europe. Manufacturing Taurus XL and Pegasus (rarely used for military missions) incorporate Minotaur has a few European some non-U.S. components. Taurus II core stage built in Ukraine. Pegasus components. and Taurus vehicles available for commercial missions. Falcon 9 series almost entirely U.S.-built. New Athena may feature foreign-built parts. 17
  18. 18. Topic 7: Possible foreign components of a generic U.S. commercial satellite IHI Aerospace liquid apogee engines (Japan) QST solar cell cover glass (UK) QST optical solar reflectors (UK) Thomson/Meggitt ball screws (UK) Bus: Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital Sciences, SS/L Thales Alenia payload (USA) (France) Saft batteries (France) Only some U.S. satellites use foreign components. Those satellites that use foreign components would typically useFairchild/BAE or Teledyne/Dalsa focal the components listed here. plane arrays (UK/Canada) 18
  19. 19. Topic 7: EELV foreign suppliers RUAG fairing (Switzerland) RUAG payload clamp bands (Switzerland) CASA interstage structure and adaptors (Spain) SAAB payload adaptors Mitsubishi tank dome (Sweden) development (Japan) SNECMA nozzle extension on RL10-B (France) Saft lithium-ion batteries (France) RD AMROSS RD-180Mitsubishi RS-68 propellant (Russia-USA partnership) valves (Japan) 19 Delta IV Atlas V
  20. 20. Closing notesª  Prime contractors and second tier subcontractors noted that they are frequently involved in space industrial base studiesª  Companies in the lower tiers of the supply chain typically had not participated in space industrial base studies and were eager to participateª  Study identified a number of lower tier sole source suppliers and areas of limited competition across the space industrial base, including four U.S. sole suppliers of space-qualified components common to both satellites and launch vehiclesª  There appears to be significant potential benefit from deeper study of lower tiers and cross sector relationships 20
  21. 21. Contact information:Carissa Christensen, Managing Partner 703-647-8070 carissa.christensen@taurigroup.comThe Tauri Group6363 Walker Lane Suite 600Alexandria, VA 22310www.taurigroup.com 21
  22. 22. BACKUP SLIDES 22
  23. 23. Topic 8: Other factors to considerª  New companies in commercial spaceflight sector ª  Private entrepreneurs with personal interest in space invest significant capital in commercial spaceflight ª  Both orbital and suborbital ª  Intent to use these vehicles for human spaceflight and research ª  NASA is providing funding for the development of crew and cargo transportation capability to low Earth orbit. NASA has contracted for commercial cargo services from some of these new companies, and expects to purchase more services in the future, including crew ª  NASA s commercial cargo and crew development programs: ª  Cargo: Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Commercial ISS resupply (CRS) ª  Crew: Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) ª  DoD provides funding to some of these firmsª  Hosted payloadsª  Operationally Responsive Space (ORS)ª  Nano-satellites and micro-satellites 23

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