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  1. 1. Measure area of irregular shape: • Graph paper Measure volume of liquid: READ,UNDERSTAND….REMEMBER!!!!!! • Measuring cylinder • Burette • Pipette PMR CHAPTER 2 SCIENCE Structure of cell and its function Chloroplast CREATED BY CIKGU IRWAN@2011 Nucleus • Produces chlorophyll • Cell control centre FORM 1 Cell membrane VacuoleCHAPTER 1 • Controls the entry and exit of materials from the cell • Contains water and soluteMass• Mass is the quantity of matter in an object. Cytoplasm Cell wall• SI unit : Kilogram (kg) • Stores dissolved materials • Maintains the shape of the cell• Lever balanceWeight Unicellular organism• Weight is the pull of gravity on an object Plant :• SI unit : Newton (N) • Chlamydomonas• Spring balance • Yeast • EuglenaBasic physical quantities & S.I. Animal : Physical SI Unit • Amoeba quantities • Paramecium Length Metre (m) • Plasmodium Mass Kilogram (kg) Time Second (s) Multicellular organisms: Temperature Kelvin (K) Plant : Electric current Ampere (A) • Spirogyra • Sea weedMeasuring tools • GrassLength : • Measuring tape Animal : • Metre rule • Eagle • Calipers • Squirrel • Ant 1
  2. 2. • Unit : g/cm3Cell organisation Density formula:Cell → Tissue → Organ → System → Organism Density = ____mass of substance (g)___ Volume of substance (cm3)System and functionSkeleton system: CHAPTER 4• Protects internal organs and gives support to the body Basic resources of earth :Blood circulation system: • Water• Transport dissolved food, gases, and waste materials • AirNervous system: • Soil• Conveys nerve impulses and reacts to stimuli • Living thingsReproductive system: • Minerals• Produces reproductive cells • Fossil fuelsRespiratory system:• Enables the exchange of gases with the surroundings Classification of matter:Excretory system: Matter is classified into:• Removes wastes materials from the body MetalDigestive system: 1. Element Non - Metal• Breaks up food into simples form to be absorbed and used by the body • Substance which is made up of one type of particle onlyMuscular system: 2. Compound• Moves the parts of the body • Substance that is made up of two or more types of elements. • Chemically combinedCHAPTER 3 • Separation method : electrolysisWhat is matter? 3. Mixture• Matter is everything that has mass and occupies space • Substance that consist of two or more substance• Matter is made up of tiny particles • Joined physicallyMatter exist in either: • Separation method :Solid: Liquid : Gas : o Distillation o Filtration CHAPTER 5 Contents of air: • Nitrogen : 78%Particles Particles Particles • Oxygen : 21%vibrate in move move fast • Carbon dioxide : 0.03%their gliding and • Inert gases : 0.9%position among each randomly • Microorganisms other • Water vapourDensity: • Dust• Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. 2
  3. 3. www.cikguirwan.webs.comProperties of oxygen: CHAPTER 6• Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas FORMS of energy:• slightly on water • Potential energy• no effect on litmus paper • Kinetic energy• supports combustion and respiration • Heat energyConfirmation test for Oxygen: • Light energyGlowing wooden splinter: • Chemical energy• Presence of oxygen causes the glowing wooden splinter to • Sound energy ignites. • Electrical energyProperties of carbon dioxide: • Nuclear energy• Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas• Slightly soluble in water Potential energy:• Very soluble in sodium hydroxide • Energy stored in an object due to its position or condition• Changes moist blue litmus paper from blue to red Kinetic energy:Confirmation test for carbon dioxide: • Energy stored in any moving objectLimewater test: Heat energy:• Carbon dioxide turns the limewater cloudy • Is a type of energy that rises the temperature of an object.Respiration Light energy: Carbon dioxide • Energy that enables us to see Oxygen Chemical energy: Energy • Energy stored in chemical substances water • Eq: Food, battery, fuel Glucose Sound energy: • Energy that is produced in vibrating object Glucose + oxygen water + carbon dioxide + energy Electrical energy: • Is produced by an electric charge or currentComparison between inhaled and exhaled air: Nuclear energy:Inhaled Exhaled • Energy stored in the nucleus of an atomNitrogen – 78% Nitrogen – 78%Inert gases – 0.9% Inert gases – 0.9% SOURCES of Energy:Oxygen – 21% Oxygen – 16% • Fossil fuelsCarbon dioxide – Carbon dioxide – • Biomass fuels0.03% 0.03% • Wind • WaterCombustion: • Sun • Radioactive substances Carbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide • Geothermal energyHydrocarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide + water 3
  4. 4. www.cikguirwan.webs.comRenewable & Non-renewable energy sources Sea breeze:Renewable energy sources:• Solar• Water• Wind• Biomass• Geothermal Physical process that involved in the change of states of matter.• Wave/tidal solidNon-renewable:• fossil fuels• radioactive substances CHAPTER 7• heat is a form of energy Liquid Gas• heat can be produced by the following ways: o rubbing two objects together Absorption of heat: o burning objects • Durk and dull objects absorbs heat better than shiny objects o electricity that runs through a coiled wire Gives out heat:• heat causes solids, liquids and gases to expand and contract • A dull, dark surface, gives out heat better than white shiny• differences between heat and temperature surface. Heat TemperatureA form of energy The degree of FORM 2 hotness or coldness CHAPTER 1 of a substance Sensory organs:Unit = Joule (J) Unit = Kelvins (K) Skin: • sense of touchHeat flows in three different ways: • Stimuli : hot, cold, pain, pressure, touch1. Conduction Nose:• is the flow of heat through solid • sense of smell2. Convection • Stimuli : Chemical substance in the air• is the flow of heat through fluids such as in gases and in liquids Tongue:3. Radiation • Sense of taste• is the transfer of heat through vacuum • Stimuli:Chemical substance in the food(Heat flows from hotter area to colder area) Ear: • sense of hearingLand breeze: • Stimuli: sound Eye: • At night • sense of sight • Sea is warmer than land • Stimuli: light • Cool air from land flows to the sea as land breeze 4
  5. 5. www.cikguirwan.webs.comProperties of light:• light can be reflected and refracted CHAPTER 2Defects of vision: Classes of food:1. long sighted Carbohydrate:• Can see far objects clearly • supply energy• Image formed behind retina Protein:• Causes: • needed for growth - eyeball too small/short • produce new cells - lens too thin fats:• correction – Use convex lens • insulator of heat for the body2. short sighted • supply energy• can see near objects clearly water:• image formed infront of retina • helps transport excretory products from cells to excretory organs• causes: • helps the digestion of food - eye ball too big/long vitamins: - Lens too thick • maintain good health• correction – use concave lens Minerals:Properties of sound: • maintain good health• is a form of energy Fibre:• produced by vibrating objects • helps in peristalsis• travels in the form of waves • prevents constipation• can be reflected (echo)• can be absorbed FOOD TESTS• can only travel through medium Starch:• cannot travel through vacuum • a few drops of iodine solution is added to food sample • +ve result = It turns Dark BlueStimuli and responses in plants: Glucose:Phototropism: • Benedict’s Solution is added to the food sample and heated• Stimuli – Light • +ve result = Brick red precipitate formed• Response to obtain sunlight Protein:Geotropism: • Millon’s reagent is added to the food sample and heated• Stimuli – gravity • +ve result = Brick red precipitate formed• Response to root itself firmly in the soil/to obtain mineral salts Fats: and water • A little food sample is placed on a piece of filter paperHydrotropism: • +ve result = A translucent spot is detected.• stimuli – water• Response to obtain water and mineral salts DIGESTIVE SYSTEMThigmotropism: Mouth Oesophagus Stomach Duodenum• Stimuli – touch• Response to obtain support and light Rectum Large intestine Small intestine 5 Anus
  6. 6. www.cikguirwan.webs.comEND PRODUCT OF DIGESTION Plant KingdomStarch glucoseProtein amino acids Flowering plant Non-Flowering plantFat Fatty acid + glycerol Monocotyledons FernsCHAPTER 3 (Plants with only one cotyledon) • Leaves with parallel veins Mosses Animal kingdom: • Have fibrous roots Fungi • Eq: Paddy,oil palm, maize Vertebrates: Inverertebrates: Have backbones No backbones Algae Dicotyledons (Plants with two cotyledon) Conifer Mammals • Body covered with hair/fur • Have net veined leaves • Breath through lungs • Have tap roots • Give birth to young alive • Eq: beans, hibiscus, rubber Warm trees Birds Blooded • Body covered with feathers Breath CHAPTER 4 • Breath through lungs Through Species: • Lay eggs lungs • Have wings • A group of the same kind of organisms with common characteristics Reptiles Population : • Body covered with dry scales • Lay eggs • a group of organisms of the same species living and reproducing in a defined area Amphibians Community : • Live on both land and water • is made up of different populations of organisms living • Breath through lungs & moist skin together in a habitat • Have moist skin Ecosystem : • Lay eggs • consists of plants, animals and the non-living environment Fish interacting with each other for living • Live in water Habitat : • Breath through gills • Body covered with slimy • a place where an organism lives scales • Have fins Interaction between living organism: 1. Prey-predator • Predator : animal that hunts other animals for food • Prey : The animal being hunted (hubungan pemangsa-mangsa) 2. Symbiosis a) Commensalism 6
  7. 7. • satu pihak mendapat faedah dan pihak yang satu lagi tidak Test for presence of water: ada kesan –ve atau +ve • Cobalt chloride paper changes from blue to pink b) Mutualism Composition of water • Kedua-dua pihak mendapat faedah • Water is a compound, made up of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 c) Parasitism atom of oxygen • Satu pihak mendapat mendapat faedah dan satu pihak rugi • H2O3. Competition Evaporation • interaksi antara organisma untuk keperluan yang sama • is a process by which liquid changes into water vapour at any temperatureBiological control • Factors affecting evaporation: • is a control of pests by the introduction of their natural o Surface area enemy o HumidityFood web o Movement of air • Producer (Selalunya tumbuhan) o Temperature of surroundings • Primary consumer (Yang memakan tumbuhan-Producer) Solution & Solubility • Secondary consumer(Yang memakan Primary consumer) a) Solution • Tertiary consumer(Yang memakan Secondary consumer) • a mixture of solute and solvent • Decomposers (pengurai bahan atau organisma yang sudah b) Solvent mati) • Liquid that dissolves a substancePhotosynthesis c) Solute • merupakan process membuat makanan oleh tumbuhan hijau • A substance that is dissolved) 1. Dilute solutionCarbon sunlight + Water glucose + Oxygen • a solution that contains very little solutedioxide chlorophyll 2. Concentrated solutionConservation • Solution that contain a lot of solute • means proper management on the use of natural resources to 3. Saturated solution maintain future accessibility • Solution that contains the maximum amount of solute andPreservation cannot dissolve any more solute • Measures taken to maintain living organisms and the natural environment in their natural balance state Factors affecting solubility • Nature of the soluteCHAPTER 5 • Nature of the solventPhysical characteristics of water • Temperature of the solvent • water can exist in 3 states : Solid, liquid, gas ACID • Colourless, tasteless, odourless at room temperature • Taste sour • Freezing point of pure water : 0oC • Corrosive • Boiling point of pure water : 100 oC • pH less than 7 • Density of pure water : 1 g/cm3 • Change wet blue litmus paper to red 7
  8. 8. www.cikguirwan.webs.comALKALIS TYPE OF FORCE• Taste bitter and soapy • Frictional force• Corrosive o Occurs when two surface in contact• pH more than 7 o Always opposes the motion of the object• Change wet blue litmus paper to red o Acts in the opposite direction to movementPURIFICATION o Can slow down or stop moving object1. Filtration • Gravitational force• strength – Remove large insoluble solids o Force that pull objects to the earth• Can’t remove dissolve substance & microorganism o Causes all objects to have weight2. Boiling • Electrostatic force• Strengh – kills microorganisms o Force of attraction or repulsion between charged substance• Can’t remove insoluble particles & dissolve substance o Enables charge substance to attract neutral substance such3. Distillation as small pieces of paper• Strengh – removes insoluble and dissolve substance/ removes o Same charges repel each other microorganisms o Different charges attract each other• Tasteless • Magnetic force4. Chlorination o Enables a magnet to attract magnetic substances like iron,• Strengh – kills microorganism nickel and cobalt• Can’t remove insoluble particles & dissolved substance WORK • Work is said to be done when a force moves an object over aCHAPTER 6 distance in the direction of the forceKinetic theory of gas • Equation for calculating work done:• gas particles move freely in all direction Work (joule) = Force (Newton) x distance (metre)• Gas particles collide with the wall of the container and bounce back POWER• A force is exerted by the particles onto the wall • Power is the rate of doing work, which means the amount of• This force produces a pressure on the walls of the container work done per unit time.Factors affecting Air pressure (AP) • Power can be calculated using the equation: Volume Temperature Work done (joules) Volume ↑ = AP Temperature ↑ = AP ↑ Power (watts) = Time taken (seconds) ↓ Volume ↓ = AP Temperature ↓ = AP ↓ CHAPTER 8 ↑ Vertebrates have 1. EndoskeletonCHAPTER 7 • also known as internal skeletonFORCE • Made up of bones and cartilage• Is an act of push and pull Invertebrates have• Cannot be seen 1. Exoskeleton• EFFECT can be seen or felt • Made of cuticle or calcium carbonate• Has magnitude and direction • Examples animals: centipede, ant, crab 8
  9. 9. www.cikguirwan.webs.com2. Hydrostatic skeleton• Consist of a muscular wall which encloses a body cavity that is FACTORS AFFECTING THE STABILITY OF AN OBJECT filled with fluid 1. The position of the centre of gravity.• This body fluid pressure gives support and shape to the animal • the lower the centre of gravity, the more stable the object• Examples animals: earthworm, leech, jellyfish 2. The base areaSUPPORT SYSTEM IN PLANTS • The wider the base area, the more stable the objectButtress Root• thick and wide roots that grow from the stem above the ground CHAPTER 10• e.q: Angsana tree, durian tree LEVERProp roots • is a simple machine• Roots which grow from the stem or branches • makes work easier• E.q.: pandan plant, maize plant • have 3 parts :Prickles o F = Fulcrum• An outgrouwth of the epidermis and can be easily removed from o E = Effort the stem. o L = Load• E.q: Rose CLASSES OF LEVERTendrils Notice the middle part of the lever• Curly string-like structures modified from stems and leaves L F E = 1st class• Curl and twine round parts of other plants or objects to help the plant to climb F L E = 2nd class• E.q: Cucumber plant, bitter gourd, pumpkinStilt roots F E L = 3rd class• Roots that develop from the main stem and grow into the ground for support. THE MOMENT OF FORCE• E.q: Mangrove tree (Bakau) • The SI unit for moment of forceClasping roots = Newton-metre (Nm)• Roots that grip onto other plants or structure to get support • Formula for moment of force:• E.q: betel vine (sirih), orchid Perpendicular distance from the Moment of force ForceThorns (duri) (Nm) = (N) X pivot to the force• Sharp modified branches that cannot be easily removed (m)• Act as hooks to hold on to supports.• E.q: Bouganvillea (Bunga Kertas) LEVER IN EQUILIBRIUM • when a lever is in equilibrium, the sum of the anticlockwiseCHAPTER 9 moments is equal to the sum of the clockwise moments.The point of equilibrium • The principle of moments can be represented by the following• is the point where the whole weight of an object appears to act formula: on.• It is also the point which an object can be balanced on and it is Load Distance of load Effort Distance of effort X from the fulcrum = X from the fulcrum (L) (E) present in all objects.• It is also known as the centre of gravity of the object 9
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