What is Motivation?MotivationThe processes that account for an individual’sintensity, direction, and persistence of effort towardattaining a goal. Key Elements Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. 3. Persistence: how long a person tries Persistence: how long a person tries
Motivation and Performance EnvironmentMotivation Effort Performance Ability
3 Major Types of Motivation Theories• Content Theories of Motivation – WHAT motivates us• Process Theories of Motivation – WHY and HOW motivation occurs• Reinforcement Theory – HOW outcomes influence behaviors
Content Perspectives on Motivation• Content Perspectives – Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question, “What factors in the workplace motivate people?”• Content Perspectives of Motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Aldefer’s ERG Theory – McGregory’s Theory X and Theory Y – Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory – McClelland’s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples Self- Challenging job Achievement actualization Job Status Esteem title Friends Friendship Belongingness at work Pension Stability Security plan Base Food Physiology salary
Assumptions of Maslow’s HierarchyMovement up the Pyramid•Individuals cannot move to the next higher level untilall needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied.•Individuals Maslow Application: Maslow Application:therefore must A homeless person A homeless personmove up thehierarchy in order will not be motivated to will not be motivated to meditate! meditate!
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs A Content Perspective• What factor or factors motivate people• Weakness of Theory – Five levels of need are not always present – Order is not always the same – Cultural differences• Need’s Hierarchy in China…an example: – Belonging – Physiological – Safety – Self actualizing in service to society
Alderfer’s ERG Theory A Content Perspective• Existence needs – Physiological• Relatedness needs – How one individual relates to his/her social environment• Growth needs – Achievement and self actualization
Alderfer’s ERG Theory A Content PerspectiveSatisfaction-Progression Frustration-Regression Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs
Content Theories• McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y – Theory X • Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. – Theory Y • Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. – Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
Content Theories• Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory – Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. • Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. • Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. – Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. • The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction- Dissatisfaction
McClelland’s Needs Theory• Three-Needs Theory – There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work. – Need for achievement (nAch) • The drive to excel and succeed – Need for power (nPow) • The need to influence the behavior of others – Need of affiliation (nAff) • The desire for interpersonal relationships
Pictures Used for Assessing Levels of nAch, nAff, and nPow
Process Perspectives of Motivation• Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals.• Process perspectives of Motivation – Goal Setting Theory – Equity Theory – Expectancy Theory
Goal-Setting Theory A Process Perspective Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance.• Difficulty – Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort.• Specificity – Clarity and precision of the goal. Goal Achievement Depends on:• Acceptance – Extent to which persons accept a goal as their own.• Commitment – Extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal.
Equity Theory: A Process Perspective• Individuals equate value of rewards to effort and compare it to other people. outcomes(self) outcomes (other) = inputs (self) inputs (other) Motivation to maintain Equity current situation Inputs/Outcomes Ways to reduce inequity Comparison of • Change inputs self with others • Change outcomes • Alter perceptions of self • Alter perceptions of other Inequity • Leave situation • Change comparisons
Three types of Justice Three types of Justice Distributive Justice Procedural JusticePerceived fairness of the The perceived fairness of outcome (the final the process used to distribution). determine the outcome (the final distribution). “Who got what?” “How was who gets what decided?” Interactional Justice The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect. “Was I treated well?”
Expectancy Theory The Basic Idea• People tend to prefer certain goals, or outcomes, over others.• They anticipate experiencing feelings of satisfaction should such a preferred outcome be achieved.• Basically, people are motivated to behave in ways that produce valued outcomes.
Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective• Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it – Elements • Effort to Performance Expectancy (E) is the probability that effort will lead to performance. • Performance to Outcome Expectancy (I) is the perception that performance leads to an outcome. • Outcome is the consequence or reward for performance. • Valence (V) is how much a particular outcome is valued.
Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective M=ExIxV• For motivated behavior to occur: – Effort-to-performance must be greater than 0 – Performance-to-outcome must be greater than 0 – Sum of valences must be greater than 0*
The Expectancy Model of Motivation Outcome Valence Environment Outcome ValenceMotivation Effort Performance Outcome Valence Ability Outcome Valence Outcome Valence
A General Model of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Outcome 1 PerformanceHigh Effort Outcome 2 Goal Expectancy Outcome 3 “What are my chances of reaching my performance goal if I work hard?” InstrumentalityDecision to “What are my chances ValenceExert Effort of getting various “How much do I value Expectancy outcomes if I achieve these outcomes?” “What are my chances my performance goal?” of reaching my performance goal if I slack off?” Outcome 1 PerformanceLow Effort Outcome 2 Goal Outcome 3
Reinforcement TheoryArgues that behavior is a function of itsconsequences. Assumptions: Assumptions: ••Behavioris environmentally caused. Behavior is environmentally caused. ••Behaviorcan be modified (reinforced) by Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. providing (controlling) consequences. ••Reinforcedbehavior tends to be repeated. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
Chapter SEVEN Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
Job Design TheoryJob CharacteristicsModel Characteristics: Characteristics:Identifies five job 1. Skill variety 1. Skill varietycharacteristics and their 2. Task identityrelationship to personal 2. Task identityand work outcomes. 3. 3. Task significance Task significance 4. 4. Autonomy Autonomy 5. 5. Feedback Feedback
Job Design Theory (cont’d)• Job Characteristics Model – Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees: • Knowledge of results • Meaningfulness of work • Personal feelings of responsibility for results – Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.
Job Design Theory (cont’d)Skill VarietyThe degree to which a job requires a variety ofdifferent activities (how may different skills areused in a given day, week, month?).Task IdentityThe degree to which the job requires completion of awhole and identifiable piece of work (from beginningto end).Task SignificanceThe degree to which the job has a substantial impacton the lives or work of other people.
Job Design Theory (cont’d) Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.FeedbackThe degree to which carrying out the work activitiesrequired by a job results in the individual obtainingdirect and clear information about the effectivenessof his or her performance.
Examples of High and Low Job CharacteristicsCharacteristics Examples Skill Variety• High variety The owner-operator of a garage who does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with customers• Low variety A bodyshop worker who sprays paint eight hours a day Task Identity• High identity A cabinetmaker who designs a piece of furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection• Low identity A worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe to make table legs Task Significance• High significance Nursing the sick in a hospital intensive care unit• Low significance Sweeping hospital floors Autonomy• High autonomy A telephone installer who schedules his or her own work for the day, and decides on the best techniques for a particular installation• Low autonomy A telephone operator who must handle calls as they come according to a routine, highly specified procedure Feedback• High feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly• Low feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests and adjusts itPrentice Hall, 2003 34
Computing a Motivating Potential ScorePeople who work on jobs with high core dimensions are People who work on jobs with high core dimensions aregenerally more motivated, satisfied, and productive. generally more motivated, satisfied, and productive.Job dimensions operate through the psychological states in Job dimensions operate through the psychological states ininfluencing personal and work outcome variables rather influencing personal and work outcome variables ratherthan influencing them directly. than influencing them directly.