What’s your name? My name is Yen, which meansMy name is Yen, which is spelled small sea bird in Vietnamese.Y-E-N like the currency of Japan.
Relative pronounsWe form relative clauses using these relativepronouns: which, who, whom, whose, that.Which, who and that are used most often.The relative adverbs where, when and whyare sometimes used instead of a relativepronoun.
Defining relative clauses1. The relative clause identifies the person or thing we aretalking about. It provides essential information andcan/cannot be left out.2. Who or which can/cannot be replaced by that3. If the relative pronoun refers to the object, it can/cannotbe left out.4. Commas are/are not needed
Non-defining relative clauses1. The relative clause provides extra information andcan/cannot be left out.2. Who or which can/cannot be replaced by that.3. The relative pronoun can/cannot be left out.4. Commas are/are not required before and after therelative clause.
What is the difference in meaning between thetwo sentences?1. My sister, who lives in Scotland, has threechildren.2. My sister who lives in Scotland has threechildren.
Forming Relative Clauses Combine the sentences using a relative clause. Use relative pronouns only where necessary.1. We spent our holiday in Scotland last year. Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. Last year, we spent our holiday in Scotland, which Last year, we … is in the north of Great Britain.
Forming Relative Clauses People live in Scotland. They are called Scottish. The people … live in Scotland The people who are called Scottish.
Forming Relative Clauses 3. We first went to Edinburgh. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. We first …We first went to Edinburgh, which is the capital of Scotland.
Forming Relative Clauses 4. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh. He wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories. Arthur Conan Doyle … Arthur Conan Doyle, who wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories, was born in Edinburgh.
Forming Relative Clauses5. Then we visited a lake. It is in the Highlands. The lake … visited is in the Highlands. The lake we
Forming Relative Clauses 6. Loch Ness is 37km long. People know it for its friendly monster. Loch Ness, which is known Loch Ness … for its friendly monster, is 37km long.
Forming Relative Clauses 7. Then we met an old man in a pub. He told us he had seen Nessie. An old man we met in a pub An old man … told us he had seen Nessie.
Forming Relative Clauses 8. Then I picked up a newspaper. The newspaper contained an interesting article about Nessie Then I picked up a newspaper Then I picked up … which contained an interesting article about Nessie.
Forming Relative Clauses 9. It reported that the mystery of Nessie has finally been solved. The mystery of Nessie has puzzled people for decades. ItIt reported that …mystery of reported that the Nessie, which has puzzled people for decades, has finally been solved.
Forming Relative Clauses10. We stopped to listen to a highlander playing the bagpipes.The bagpipes are a traditional Scottish musical instrument.We stopped to listen to a highlander playing the bagpipes,We stopped …which are a traditional Scottish musical instrument.
Forming Relative Clauses11. The next day, we climbed the highest mountainin Great Britain. It is called Ben Nevis. The next day … climbed the highest The next day, we mountain in Great Britain, which is called Ben Nevis.
Forming Relative Clauses12. I sent you a postcard. It was written on the summit ofBen Nevis.The postcard … you was written on the summit ofThe postcard I sentBen Nevis.
Distinguishing between who and whom This is the old man whom we met in a pub at Loch Ness. This is the old man who told us he has seen the Loch Ness monster.
Using whose to introduce a relative clauseWhose is used for showing that someone or somethingbelongs to or is connected with the person or thing thatyou have just mentioned.Ex1: Help is needed for families whose homes weredestroyed by the hurricane.Ex2: This family is living in a house whose roof couldcollapse at any time.
Mistake 1: Forgetting relative pronouns Ex: There are many people do not agree with with who do not agree the government’s policy. the government’s policy.
Mistake 2: Joining two sentenceswith a comma instead of using arelative pronoun.Ex: There are many aspects to this problem, oneEx: There are many aspects to this problem, oneof them is money.of which is money.
Mistake 3: Forgetting that therelative pronoun replaces the objectof the relative clause.Ex: Pizza is the best food that I have ever tasted Ex: Pizza is the best food that I have ever tasted.it before.
Be carefulSometimes you can simplify a sentence by not using arelative clause!Ex: Men who were still unemployed five months afterleaving university numbered fewer than 500. Fewer than 500 men were still unemployed five months after leaving university.
Defining relative clausesUnderline the best alternative. 0 = no relative pronoun1. The results 0/that/who were published were later called into question. question.2. The statistics who/which/0 the government used were inaccurate.3. The percentage of adults who/that/0 had two jobs halved thefollowing year.4. The amount of air pollution who/that/0 was recorded in Los Angelesdecreased slightly during that period.5. There was an increase of 5% in the number of visitors to Canadawhich/that/0 came from Germany.
Non-defining relative clauses Combine the two sentences using a relative clause. virus, which is believed to have originated in1.The computer virus has caused millions of pounds worth ofTexas, has caused millions of pounds worth of damage.damage. The computer virus is believed to have originated in Texas.2. Oxford University, which is place in the ‘Times in the2. Oxford University took first the oldest universityGood UniversityEnglish-speaking world, took first the oldest university in theGuide 2002’. Oxford University is place in the ‘Times GoodUniversity Guide world.English-speaking 2002’.3. Nurses are vital to the health service.country, are not wellthe in3. Nurses, who are not well paid in my Nurses are vital to paidmy country.health service.4. The Prime Minister has resigned. Theoffice for seven years, hasin4. The Prime Minister, who has been in Prime Minister has beenoffice for seven years.resigned.5. Email has made widely availablemuch quicker. Email is widely Email, which is communication in the UK, has madecommunication muchavailable in the UK. quicker.
Subject and object relative clausesThe relative pronoun can replace the subject or the object ofthe relative clause.Subject: Chocolate contains a stimulant called theobrominewhich/that (it) is believed to make us more alert.Object: Chocolate is something which/that/0 many people feelguilty about eating (it).
With an active verb we use a present participle.When the active verb is progressive we leave outthe relative pronoun and the verb to be.Active verb: The woman who is sitting next to thedoor has been looking at you. Do you know her?
With a passive verb we use a past participle andleave out the relative pronoun and the verb to be.Passive verb: The article which was published inyesterday’s Times could be useful.
Relative clauses with a to-infinitiveLook at this structure with the to-infinitive. New Zealand was the first country to give women the vote. (= the first country which gave women the vote)Here are some more examples. The guest on our show is the youngest golfer to win the Open. Emma Thompson is the most famous actress to appear on stage here.We can use a to-infinitive with these words: first, second, etc;next and last; only; and superlatives, e.g. youngest, mostfamous.
Prepositions in relative clausesIn formal English, a preposition can be used at the beginning ofthe relative clause, before which or whom.Ex1: Electronics is a subject about which I know very little.Ex2: The people with whom he worked have all been arrested.Ex3: They collected the sap from the sugar maple trees, fromwhich maple syrup is produced.Note: We cannot put a preposition before that or who.
Sentential relative clausesThis type of clause does not modify a noun butrefers to the whole sentence.Ex: He keeps bragging about his success, whichreally annoys me.
This old man drinks five glassesof Scotch whisky everynight, which is enough to makeanyone believe they have seenthe Loch Ness monster!
Sherlock Holmespossessed amazingpowers of deduction, aprofound understanding ofhuman nature and a rareability to think outside thebox – all of which helpedto establish his reputationas the world’s greatestdetective.