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Transistor sebagai-switch

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Transistor sebagai-switch

  1. 1. Transistor
  2. 2.                                                                              BJT Transistors: NPN  Transistor PNP  Transistor Sandwiching a P- type layer  between two n- type layers. Sandwiching a N- type layer  between two p- type layers.
  3. 3.                                           How a “NPN” Transistor works? Forwardbackward The base-emitter diode  (forward) acts as a switch.  when v1>0.7  it lets the  electrons flow toward  collector. so we can control  our output current (Ic) with  the input current (Ib) by using  transistors. C B E
  4. 4. Collector Emitter Base Transistors have three terminals: Transistors work in 3 regions Active: Always on Ic=BIb Saturation :Ic=Isaturation On as a switch Off :Ic=0 Off as a switch
  5. 5. Transistor as a Switch • Transistors can be used as switches.1 • Transistors can either conductconduct or not conductnot conduct current.2 • ie, transistors can either be onon or offoff.2 Transistor Switch
  6. 6. Transistor Switching Example15 • When VBE is less than 0.7V the transistor is off and the lamp does not light. • When VBE is greater than 0.7V the transistor is on and the lamp lights. X Variable Voltage Supply 12V
  7. 7. Transistor Circuit : Light-Controlled Circuit • This transistor circuit contains a Light-Dependent Resistor. • Because of the LDR, this circuit is dependent on light. • The purpose of this circuit is to turn on the LED when the light reaches a certain intensity. Input = Voltage Divider Process = Transistor Output = LED 1) LED = Off. 2) Cover LDR. 3) RLDR ↑. 4) VLDR ↑. 5) Transistor switches on. 6) LED = On.
  8. 8. Transistor as an amplifier: Transistors are often used as amplifiers to increase input signal in radios, televisions and some other applications .The circuit may be designed to increase the current or voltage level. The power gain is the product of current gain and voltage gain (P=V*I).
  9. 9. Amplifier example: As you see, the transistor is biased to be always on. The input signal is amplified by this circuit. The frequency of output is the same as its input, but the polarity of the signal is inverted. The measure of amplification is the gain of transistor. Example: Input Amplitude =0.2v Output amplitude=10v Gain=10/0.2=50
  10. 10. Field Effect Transistors JFET MOSFET CMOS
  11. 11. When the gate is negative ,it repels the electron in the N-channel. So there is no way for electrons to flow from source to drain. When the negative voltage is removed from Gate ,the electrons can flow freely from source to drain .so the transistor is on. How a JFET transistor works?
  12. 12. When the Gate is positive voltage ,it allows electrons to flow from drain to source .In this case transistor is on. In MosFET, the Gate is insulated from p-channel or n-channel. This prevents gate current from flowing, reducing power usage. How a MOSFET Transistor works?
  13. 13. How a CMOS transistor works? When Gate (input) is high ,electrons can flow in N-channel easily . So output becomes low. (opposite of input) When Gate (input) is low ,holes can flow in P-channel easily. So output becomes high. (opposite of input) N-channel & P-channel MOSFETs can be combined in pairs with a common gate .
  14. 14. SWITCHING • The modern computer is a digital and electronic device. • Runs on flow of electrons - movement of electrons from outer valence shells on atoms • Requires force/energy to pull an electron out of a shell - Electro-motive force (EMF) - Voltage • How tightly the electrons are held determines how much voltage is needed and is quantified as resistance • Number of Electrons flowing is quantified as Amperes
  15. 15. • Computers are electronic switching devices • Voltage source (battery) • Meter to detect voltage differential 0 5 0 5 0 5 Short Circuit large voltage flow, but no voltage differential
  16. 16. Digital Switch - Transistor • Computers are constructed from transistors • Transistor are used as on-off switches (0-off, 1-on), hence binary 0 5 0 5
  17. 17. Transistor controlling the circuit 0 50 5
  18. 18. Measuring Output before the transistor • Acts as an invertor • No voltage on the input causes the meter to read 5 volts • A voltage on the input causes the meter to read zero 0 5 0 5
  19. 19. NAND – Not AND A B Out 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 5 A B 0 5 A B

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