PROBLEMS, STUMBLING BLOCKS AND
SOLUTIONS FOR U.S. AQUACULTURE
MAINE AQUACULTURE ASSOCIATION
KEEPING MAINE’S WORKING WATERF...
BY 2030 AVERAGE STANDARD OF
LIVING IN CHINA AND INDIA = US
SMALL LIFEBOAT, LOTS OF OCCUPANTS
9.6 BILLION BY 2050
FOOD PRODUCTION MUST DOUBLE
BIG AND INCREASING NEED
LIMITED RESOURCES
ARABLE LAND – FRESH WATER - NUTRIENTS
“The world is in transition from an era of food abundance to one of scarcity, rising food
prices and spreading hunger. Pop...
25 % OF EARTHS SURFACE IS LAND
30% OF THAT LANDMASS IS ARABLE
ONLY 7.5% OF THE WORLDS SURFACE AREA MUST FEED THE WORLD
UNLESS……..?
75 % OF EARTHS SURFACE IS WATER
MOST SOLAR RADIATION HITS THE EARTH IN UNFARMED AREA
GROWING FOOD IN WATER HAS...
EFFICIENCIES OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL PROTEIN SECTORS
INPUT REQUIREMENTS TO PRODUCE 1 KG RAW PRODUCT
8 kg feed
1857 gallons
3 k...
EFFICIENCIES OF DIFFERENT PLANT PRODUCTION
FRESHWATER REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 1 KG RAW PRODUCT
Wheat
1500 Liters
Corn
1400 Lit...
IT’S ABOUT SPACE AND RESOURCES
IN THE FUTURE WE WILL GROW MOST OF OUR FOOD IN WATER
THE FARMER OF THE FUTURE
• HUNTER / GATHERERS HERDSMEN
– 8000 YEARS AGO – LAND RESOURCES
– 2000 YEARS AGO FOR AQUATIC RESOURCES
– DRIVEN BY RESOURC...
World Edible Seafood Supply
And Forecast 1991-2030
Growth in Aquaculture, Not Wild
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
91 92 93 ...
BRIC AND CHINA IN PARTICULAR
AS A GAME CHANGER
• From 1985 to 2005 domestic demand for
seafood in China has increased from...
MAINE AQUACULTURE
≈ 600 SPECIES CULTURED
62% FRESH WATER
30% SALT WATER
8% BRACKISH
FARM GATE ≈$125 BILLION
8.8% ANNUAL GR...
GLOBAL STATUS /TRENDS 2012
Source: FAO 2012
NATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS
• >90% OF SEAFOOD IMPORTED
• <2% OF IMPORTS INSPECTED (CONTAMINANTS, RESIDUES)
• ~59% OF ALL SE...
US AQUACULTURE
PRODUCTION
MAINE AQUACULTURE
• ≈ 81 SPECIES CULTURED
• # SPECIES 47% FRESHWATER 42% SALTWATER
• SPECIES BRE...
SHARE OF CONSUMPTION SUPPLIED BY
DOMESTIC PRODUCTION
Source: USDA2010,USDOC2012
• LACK OF VISION AND LEADERSHIP
• LACK OF INDUSTRY COORDINATION
• LACK OF POLITICAL WILL AND LEADERSHIP
• DIFFICULT SOCIAL...
• SPECIES CHOICES
• TECHNOLOGY CHOICES
• ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
• ERODING WORKING WATERFRONT INFRASTRUCTURE
• RESEARCH AND ...
CHALLENGES = OPPORTUNITIES = CHOICES
UNDERLYING FUNDAMENTALS STRONG
• WORLD NEEDS FOOD
• U.S. NEEDS JOBS, 3RD
LARGEST SEAF...
• RESOLVE FEDERAL AGENCY CONFLICT
• DEFINE SPECIALTY CROPS TO INCLUDE AQUACULTURE
• CREATE NATIONAL AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMEN...
• HIGH WATER QUALITY
• SPACE
• WORKING WATERFRONT INFRASTRUCTURE
• PROXIMITY TO MARKET
• FOOD SAFETY BRAND
• RESEARCH AND ...
WHO KNOWS?
MAINE AQUACULTURE
KEEPING WORKING WATERFRONTS WORKING
Thanks
Contact Me
Sebastian Belle
P.O. Box 148
Hallowell, ME 04347
207 622 0136
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Mr. Sebastian Belle - Problems, Stumbling Blocks and Solutions for U.S. Aquaculture

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Problems, Stumbling Blocks and Solutions for U.S. Aquaculture - Mr. Sebastian Belle, Executive Director, Maine Aquaculture Association, from the 2013 NIAA Merging Values and Technology conference, April 15-17, 2013, Louisville, KY, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2013-niaa-merging-values-and-technology

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  • Public review but protects private proprietary information
  • We are running out ,of ingredients and need to change our approach GLOBALLY ANNUALLY &gt;100,000 SQUARE KILOMETERS CROPLAND REMOVED FROM CULTIVATION. KNOWN WORLD PHOSPHORUS RESERVES RUN OUT IN 2050 GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION RATES EXCEED RECHARGE RATES IN 87% OF KNOW AQUIFERS 2009 MAIZE, RICE AND WHEAT YIELD GAINS PLATEAUED CHANGING WEATHER AND PRECIPITATION PATTERNS NATIONALLY ONE ACRE OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IS LOST DUE TO URBANIZATION FOR EVERY PERSON ADDED TO THE U.S. POPULATION. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GAINS FLAT BIOFUELS REDUCING ACREAGE IN FOOD PRODUCTION
  • It’s also useful to look at efficiency And consider life-cycle environmental costs
  • It’s also useful to look at efficiency And consider life-cycle environmental costs
  • NOTE NUMBER OF SALTWATER SPECIES – MANY IN EARLY STAGE OF DEVO PRODUCTION VOLUME DOWN IN RECENT YEARS GROWTH ESSENTIALLY FLAT SINCE 2009 4300 FARMS SLIGHTLY MISLEADING DUE TO SMALL UNIT DEFINITION OF FARM
  • Mr. Sebastian Belle - Problems, Stumbling Blocks and Solutions for U.S. Aquaculture

    1. 1. PROBLEMS, STUMBLING BLOCKS AND SOLUTIONS FOR U.S. AQUACULTURE MAINE AQUACULTURE ASSOCIATION KEEPING MAINE’S WORKING WATERFRONTS WORKING GOOD JOBS - RESPONSIBLE STEWARDSHIP - HEALTHY FOOD
    2. 2. BY 2030 AVERAGE STANDARD OF LIVING IN CHINA AND INDIA = US
    3. 3. SMALL LIFEBOAT, LOTS OF OCCUPANTS 9.6 BILLION BY 2050 FOOD PRODUCTION MUST DOUBLE
    4. 4. BIG AND INCREASING NEED LIMITED RESOURCES ARABLE LAND – FRESH WATER - NUTRIENTS
    5. 5. “The world is in transition from an era of food abundance to one of scarcity, rising food prices and spreading hunger. Population growth, rising affluence, and the conversion of food into fuels are combining to raise consumption by record amounts. Extreme soil erosion, growing water shortages, and the earth’s rising temperature are making it more difficult to expand production. Unless we can reverse such trends, food prices will continue to rise and hunger will continue to spread, eventually bringing down our social system.” Lester Brown 2012 COST AND AVAILABILITY OF FOOD, ENERGY AND WATER WILL BE THE SOCIAL DRIVERS IN NEXT CENTURIES
    6. 6. 25 % OF EARTHS SURFACE IS LAND 30% OF THAT LANDMASS IS ARABLE ONLY 7.5% OF THE WORLDS SURFACE AREA MUST FEED THE WORLD
    7. 7. UNLESS……..? 75 % OF EARTHS SURFACE IS WATER MOST SOLAR RADIATION HITS THE EARTH IN UNFARMED AREA GROWING FOOD IN WATER HAS KEY ADVANTAGES
    8. 8. EFFICIENCIES OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL PROTEIN SECTORS INPUT REQUIREMENTS TO PRODUCE 1 KG RAW PRODUCT 8 kg feed 1857 gallons 3 kg feed 756 gallons 2 kg feed 469 gallons 1.1 kg feed 32 gallons Aquatic animals 10-20% more efficient than land animals at converting energy to meat and protein One acre of farmed mussels produces 1000 x 0 kg feed .001 gallons
    9. 9. EFFICIENCIES OF DIFFERENT PLANT PRODUCTION FRESHWATER REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 1 KG RAW PRODUCT Wheat 1500 Liters Corn 1400 Liters Rice 4700 Liters Seaweed .01 Liters Aquatic Plants -10% more efficient than land plants at converting energy to raw product -Little or No fertilizer required -Little or No freshwater required
    10. 10. IT’S ABOUT SPACE AND RESOURCES IN THE FUTURE WE WILL GROW MOST OF OUR FOOD IN WATER
    11. 11. THE FARMER OF THE FUTURE
    12. 12. • HUNTER / GATHERERS HERDSMEN – 8000 YEARS AGO – LAND RESOURCES – 2000 YEARS AGO FOR AQUATIC RESOURCES – DRIVEN BY RESOURCE LIMITS AND INCREASED POPULATION TRANSITION FROM WILD TO FARM • FENCING IN WILD ANIMALS – TRAP AND HOLD • SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING • CLOSING THE LIFE CYCLE • IMPROVING PERFORMANCE – SELECTION – TECHNOLOGY AQUACULTURE A SHORT HISTORY
    13. 13. World Edible Seafood Supply And Forecast 1991-2030 Growth in Aquaculture, Not Wild 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2030 Million Metric Tons Wild Aquaculture Source: FAO 34 % 52%
    14. 14. BRIC AND CHINA IN PARTICULAR AS A GAME CHANGER • From 1985 to 2005 domestic demand for seafood in China has increased from 7kg to 25kg per capita • 2010 China flips from net exporter to importer • China projected to double its per capita spending on seafood products between 2008 and 2020 Source: K.B. Lindkvist et al. / Marine Policy 32 (2008)
    15. 15. MAINE AQUACULTURE ≈ 600 SPECIES CULTURED 62% FRESH WATER 30% SALT WATER 8% BRACKISH FARM GATE ≈$125 BILLION 8.8% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE 1980 – 2010 SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT $20.5 BILLION 2009 11.6% ANNUAL GROWTH ≈16.6 MILLION EMPLOYED WORLDWIDE SOURCE: FAO 2012
    16. 16. GLOBAL STATUS /TRENDS 2012 Source: FAO 2012
    17. 17. NATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS • >90% OF SEAFOOD IMPORTED • <2% OF IMPORTS INSPECTED (CONTAMINANTS, RESIDUES) • ~59% OF ALL SEAFOOD CONSUMED IN US IS FARMED • SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO U.S. TRADE DEFICIT >$10.6 BILLION (DOC 2011) • 2010 SEAFOOD I'D AS NATIONAL SECURITY RISK • US AQUACULTURE >$1.5 BILLION (FARM GATE) • ~4200 FARMS (MOST FRESHWATER) SOURCES: DOC 2011,USDA 2011,FDA 2010, NOAA 2010, URNER BARRY 2011, NSA 2010
    18. 18. US AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION MAINE AQUACULTURE • ≈ 81 SPECIES CULTURED • # SPECIES 47% FRESHWATER 42% SALTWATER • SPECIES BREAKDOWN 65% FINFISH 35% SHELLFISH • PRODUCTION VOLUME ≈ 500,000 METRIC TONS (2008) • TONNAGE 80% FRESH WATER 20% SALT WATER • COMBINED VALUE $1.1 BILLION • 1.8% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE 1980 – 2008 • 4300 FARMS ≈5600 DIRECT EMPLOYMENT (2005) SOURCE: USDA 2011, FAO 2012
    19. 19. SHARE OF CONSUMPTION SUPPLIED BY DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Source: USDA2010,USDOC2012
    20. 20. • LACK OF VISION AND LEADERSHIP • LACK OF INDUSTRY COORDINATION • LACK OF POLITICAL WILL AND LEADERSHIP • DIFFICULT SOCIAL LICENSE (PUBLIC WATERS) • LACK OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INCENTIVES • LACK OF CROP INSURANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT • FEDERAL AGENCY CONFLICTS • LACK OF THERAPEUTANTS US AQUACULTURE CHALLENGES
    21. 21. • SPECIES CHOICES • TECHNOLOGY CHOICES • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS • ERODING WORKING WATERFRONT INFRASTRUCTURE • RESEARCH AND EXTENSION NONCOMMERCIAL FOCUS • ENGO ENGAGEMENT IN NATIONAL OCEAN POLICY US AQUACULTURE SECONDARY CHALLENGES
    22. 22. CHALLENGES = OPPORTUNITIES = CHOICES UNDERLYING FUNDAMENTALS STRONG • WORLD NEEDS FOOD • U.S. NEEDS JOBS, 3RD LARGEST SEAFOOD MARKET • INCREASING CONCERNS ABOUT FOOD COST, FOOD SAFETY AND NATIONAL SECURITY • U.S. EEZ LARGER THAN US LAND MASS • FOOD CONVERSION, ENERGY AND WATER USE MORE EFFICIENT THAN OTHER FOOD PRODUCTION METHODS • INCREASED ENERGY COSTS WILL INCREASE COST OF FOOD TRANSPORT AND IMPORTS • WE NEED A NATIONAL “BLUE SPACE” PROGRAM • MAINE IS ALREADY AHEAD OF THE CURVE
    23. 23. • RESOLVE FEDERAL AGENCY CONFLICT • DEFINE SPECIALTY CROPS TO INCLUDE AQUACULTURE • CREATE NATIONAL AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM – NATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM – REGIONAL DEMONSTRATION FARMS – REGIONAL BREEDING STATIONS AND HATCHERIES – STARTUP CAPITAL AND FINANCING – RISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS – TAX / INVESTMENT INCENTIVES – REDUCED REGULATORY BARRIERS TO ENTRY – CONSUMER EDUCATION AND MARKETING • CREATE NATIONAL WORKING WATERFRONT PROGRAM • REFOCUS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION RESOURCES US AQUACULTURE SOLUTIONS
    24. 24. • HIGH WATER QUALITY • SPACE • WORKING WATERFRONT INFRASTRUCTURE • PROXIMITY TO MARKET • FOOD SAFETY BRAND • RESEARCH AND EXTENSION RESOURCES • DIVERSE GROWING CONDITIONS US AQUACULTURE STRENGTHS
    25. 25. WHO KNOWS?
    26. 26. MAINE AQUACULTURE KEEPING WORKING WATERFRONTS WORKING
    27. 27. Thanks Contact Me Sebastian Belle P.O. Box 148 Hallowell, ME 04347 207 622 0136

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