Pathways assessment:
Entry Assessment for Exotic Viral
Pathogens of Swine
Lisa A. Ferguson
USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Service...
Objectives
• Identify and describe pathways by which
exotic viral pathogens of swine may enter the
US
• Estimate the likel...
Virus in
region
Infected or
contaminated
product selected
for export
Virus survives
process prior to
export
Virus survives...
Next steps
• Pathways with non-negligible likelihood of
introduction - estimate likelihood of exposure
• Pathways with non...
Risk estimation terms
Term Definition
Negligible So rare that it doesn’t merit consideration
Low Rare but does occur
Mediu...
Assumptions
• One or more exotic viral pathogens are
present
• Infected animals are selected for slaughter
and/or renderin...
Representative viruses
• Stand in for both single- and double-stranded
RNA and DNA virus
• Encompass a range of resistance...
Pathway groups
• Airborne
• Inanimate articles serve as fomites
– Animal tissues or fluid and their products
– Conveyances...
Feed ingredient origin
• Animal (rendered products, marine, dairy, etc..)
• Plant (forage, grain, by-products, fats/oils,
...
Rendered animal proteins and fats,
marine by-products
• Includes blood products – none imported
• Rendering process inacti...
Milk and milk derivatives
• Small amount of imports
• Treatment sufficient to inactivate FMD
• Post-processing contaminati...
Animal manure
• Virus could be present
• Not allowed entry for purpose of feeding
• Negligible risk of entry
Plants and plant products
• Imports – Canada, Argentina, Mexico
• Potential for contamination if contact with
infected ani...
Microbial culture
• Amino acids (L-carnitine, lysine, etc..), probiotics,
enzymes (phytase), vitamin (B2, B12), etc.
• Con...
Chemical synthesis/mining
• Amino acid (methionine), minerals, vitamins
(A, B1, B3 or B5, B6, B7, B9, D, K; choline), etc....
• Questions?
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Dr. Lisa Ferguson - Pathways Analysis Project

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Pathways Analysis Project - Lisa Ferguson, DVM, National Director, Policy Permitting and Regulatory Services, APHIS, VS, National Import Export Services, from the 2014 NIAA Annual Conference titled 'The Precautionary Principle: How Agriculture Will Thrive', March 31 - April 2, 2014, Omaha, NE, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2014_niaa_how_animal_agriculture_will_thrive

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Dr. Lisa Ferguson - Pathways Analysis Project

  1. 1. Pathways assessment: Entry Assessment for Exotic Viral Pathogens of Swine Lisa A. Ferguson USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services NIAA, Omaha April 2014
  2. 2. Objectives • Identify and describe pathways by which exotic viral pathogens of swine may enter the US • Estimate the likelihood that each identified pathway may introduce exotic viral pathogens of swine into the US
  3. 3. Virus in region Infected or contaminated product selected for export Virus survives process prior to export Virus survives transport to US Virus survives import mitigation at border Product contaminated post-process ENTRY NO NO NO NO NO no no no no no YES YES YES YES YES
  4. 4. Next steps • Pathways with non-negligible likelihood of introduction - estimate likelihood of exposure • Pathways with non-negligible likelihood of exposure – evaluate consequences • Pathways where consequences, overall risk of introduction, and overall risk of exposure are non-negligible – identify potential mitigation measures
  5. 5. Risk estimation terms Term Definition Negligible So rare that it doesn’t merit consideration Low Rare but does occur Medium Occurs regularly High Occurs very often
  6. 6. Assumptions • One or more exotic viral pathogens are present • Infected animals are selected for slaughter and/or rendering • Current regulations and mitigation procedures effectively enforced
  7. 7. Representative viruses • Stand in for both single- and double-stranded RNA and DNA virus • Encompass a range of resistance to inactivation – Classical swine fever – Foot and mouth disease – Pseudorabies
  8. 8. Pathway groups • Airborne • Inanimate articles serve as fomites – Animal tissues or fluid and their products – Conveyances and containers – Equipments – Food and feed – Garbage • Live animals that may serve as vectors or fomites – Livestock/germplasm – Humans – Microorganisms or arthropod vectors – Other live animals
  9. 9. Feed ingredient origin • Animal (rendered products, marine, dairy, etc..) • Plant (forage, grain, by-products, fats/oils, vitamins, etc…) • Microbial culture (amino acids, minerals, vitamins, etc…) • Mined material (anticaking, colorants, minerals) • Synthetic (amino acids, antioxidants, flavors, minerals, vitamins, etc…)
  10. 10. Rendered animal proteins and fats, marine by-products • Includes blood products – none imported • Rendering process inactivates viruses • Post-processing contamination unlikely; transport times and conditions not conducive to virus survival • Negligible risk of entry
  11. 11. Milk and milk derivatives • Small amount of imports • Treatment sufficient to inactivate FMD • Post-processing contamination unlikely; transport times and conditions not conducive to virus survival • Negligible risk of entry
  12. 12. Animal manure • Virus could be present • Not allowed entry for purpose of feeding • Negligible risk of entry
  13. 13. Plants and plant products • Imports – Canada, Argentina, Mexico • Potential for contamination if contact with infected animals/excretions/fomites • ? Virus survival time • Negligible risk of entry if pelleted/treated; low risk of entry if unprocessed
  14. 14. Microbial culture • Amino acids (L-carnitine, lysine, etc..), probiotics, enzymes (phytase), vitamin (B2, B12), etc. • Contamination of culture (bacteria, fungi, bacteriophages) considered production failure; GMP control • Recovery of product – sterilization, centrifugation, filtration, crystallization, etc… - not conducive to virus survival • Negligible risk of entry
  15. 15. Chemical synthesis/mining • Amino acid (methionine), minerals, vitamins (A, B1, B3 or B5, B6, B7, B9, D, K; choline), etc.. • Viruses can’t propagate without living animal cells; contamination unlikely to survive manufacturing process • Post-processing contamination unlikely; transport times and conditions not conducive to virus survival • Negligible risk of entry
  16. 16. • Questions?

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