Feral Swine and Foreign andEmerging Animal DiseasesNIAA Animal Health EmergencyManagement CouncilDr. Lindsey HolmstromApri...
Outline U.S. Feral Swine: Current Knowledge Foreign Animal Diseases Factors associated with disease spread California ...
3 Widespread distribution, populations continue to increase Recent movement/purposeful introductions in northern states...
Purebred Eurasian (Left) v. Feral/Hybrid (Right)Photos courtesy of Dr. Ed Stephens, Two Rivers Outdoor Club, Inc. 4
Two Main Types of Wild Boar Hunting Preservesin U.S.Free Range Wild BoarHunting PreservesEnclosed Area WildBoar Hunting Pr...
Supply Channels for Wild Boar HuntingPreservesFree Range WildBoar HuntingPreservesEnclosed AreaWild Boar HuntingPreservesF...
Known Feral Swine Diseases and Risks Swine Brucellosis Pseudorabies Trichinosis Leptospirosis Toxoplasmosis Classica...
 Infects cloven hooved animals African buffaloes maintenance hosts Last outbreak in the US: 1929 22,214 deer killed in...
9
Bulgaria 2011 outbreaks and role of wild boar No virus was isolated from wildlife except for theindex case Introduction ...
African Swine Fever (ASF) Infects domestic/wild swine European wild boar get sick, African wild swine do not Probably a...
African Swine Fever (ASF) Up to 100% morbidity Mortality varies with virulence (0-100%) Virus usually disappears from w...
ASF: Geographic Distribution13Source: World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID), OIE
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) Highly contagious, economically costly viral disease ofswine; Hog Cholera Natural Hosts: pig...
CSF: Continual Risk of Introduction Worldwide distribution Ease of access to the virus Currently circulating viral stra...
 Outbreaks not necessarily self-limiting CSF endemic in some wild boarpopulations Germany: 1990-98, ~59%of outbreaks du...
Factors influencing disease spread in feral swine1. Population distribution and density2. Social and spatial structure3. M...
Factors influencing disease spread in feral swine1. Population distribution/density Distributions continue to increase in...
2. Social and spatial structure Form social groups calledsounders Consist of two or more sowsand their young Majority y...
3. Population dynamics Highest reproductive capacity of all large, free-ranging mammals 1-2 litters of 4–8 piglets per y...
Factors influencing disease spread in feral swine4. Movements Sedentary within their home range Home range typically 3-5...
5. Habitat connectivity Connectivity of populations across fragmented landscapes Interaction between social groups Popu...
6. Intra- and inter-species contact Feral swine are sympatric with outdoor domestic livestock and otherwildlife species ...
Interplay of ecological and epidemiologicalfactors affecting disease spread in feral swineSource: Kramer-Schadt et al. 2007
The Problem GAO (2009): “If wildlife became infected *with a foreign animaldisease+…response would be greatly complicated...
26CA Wild Pig Project: The Approach Collect empirical data on California wild pigs Global positioning systems (GPS) Geo...
Wild Pigs in California Estimated population variesfrom 200,000-1 million Non-native, invasive species Year-round hunti...
CA wild pig project 3 study areas representingdifferent ecoregions North Coast Redwoods, oak Central Coast Oak, grass...
The Data Sampling sounders and boars Locations monitored Collar stays on pigs for 10 wks GPS locations every 15 min(7p...
 Movement patterns How do pigs move through different habitattypes? Factors associated with habitatselection Where do ...
 Analyses focus on parametersused in current wildlife diseasemodels Movement parameters Day/night, daily, weekly, month...
Mendocino County, CA32
August 12, 201133
August 17, 201134
35Wild pig GPS data: July-Oct 2011
36Data analyses Longitudinal analyses; seasonality will be assessed after all data collected Current feral swine disease...
 Aim: To assess the association between landscape pattern andhabitat selectionAdapted from Chetkiewicz et al. 2006Data An...
Population connectivity Landscape genetics = population genetics +landscape ecology + spatial statistics Characterizes a...
39Expected OutcomesAdapted from Chetkiewicz et al. 2006
40Implications for foreign animal diseases Understanding potential FAD spread requiresknowledge of wild pig distribution...
Implications for disease control Identifying areas to focus mitigation strategies Disconnect subpopulations of wild pigs...
Acknowledgements Supported by the Foreign Animal Disease Modeling Program ofthe U. S. Department of Homeland Security Sci...
Questions?43
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Dr. Lindsey Holmstrom - Feral Swine and Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases

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Feral Swine and Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases - Dr. Lindsey Holmstrom; Diagnostic Epidemiologist, Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Center, from the 2013 NIAA Merging Values and Technology conference, April 15-17, 2013, Louisville, KY, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2013-niaa-merging-values-and-technology

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  • How would ASF likely enter the U.S.? Uncooked garbage, meats
  • Outbreaks in northern russia and previous outbreaks in southern regions 2010-2011 in domestic pigs and wild boar
  • Not migratory
  • Habitat use or habitat modeling = Hector’s interest
  • Dr. Lindsey Holmstrom - Feral Swine and Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases

    1. 1. Feral Swine and Foreign andEmerging Animal DiseasesNIAA Animal Health EmergencyManagement CouncilDr. Lindsey HolmstromApril 16, 2013
    2. 2. Outline U.S. Feral Swine: Current Knowledge Foreign Animal Diseases Factors associated with disease spread California wild pig project: data collectionefforts to address the risk of FAD spread2
    3. 3. 3 Widespread distribution, populations continue to increase Recent movement/purposeful introductions in northern states Eurasian boar importation from Canada Exotic, invasive species Population estimates4 to 5 million Economic costs:~ $800 million/yearSCWDS http://128.192.20.53/nfsmsU.S. Feral Swine Population
    4. 4. Purebred Eurasian (Left) v. Feral/Hybrid (Right)Photos courtesy of Dr. Ed Stephens, Two Rivers Outdoor Club, Inc. 4
    5. 5. Two Main Types of Wild Boar Hunting Preservesin U.S.Free Range Wild BoarHunting PreservesEnclosed Area WildBoar Hunting PreservesPrimarily Southern US Primarily Northern US• Guided & unguided feralswine hunting• More traditional hunting• Guided hunting in an enclosedarea• Areas range from 80 to 1000s ofacres• Many operations have 500 – 1000customers/year• Prices normally are $500 -$700/hunt
    6. 6. Supply Channels for Wild Boar HuntingPreservesFree Range WildBoar HuntingPreservesEnclosed AreaWild Boar HuntingPreservesFeral SwinePreexistingFeral SwinePopulationTrappedFeral SwinefromSouthernUSRaisedEurasian orHybrid SwineFrom CanadaPrimarily Southern US Primarily Northern US
    7. 7. Known Feral Swine Diseases and Risks Swine Brucellosis Pseudorabies Trichinosis Leptospirosis Toxoplasmosis Classical Swine Fever African Swine Fever Foot and Mouth Disease Anthrax Hepatitis E PRRSTularemia West Nile virus E. coli Salmonella Bovine Tuberculosis Influenza Streptococcus Ticks, Fleas, Lice Internal parasites2
    8. 8.  Infects cloven hooved animals African buffaloes maintenance hosts Last outbreak in the US: 1929 22,214 deer killed in CA outbreak, 1925 Unexpected for feral swine to be reservoirs but couldplay a role in limited disease spreadFoot and mouth disease (FMD)Photo courtesy of California Dept. of Fish and Game 8
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. Bulgaria 2011 outbreaks and role of wild boar No virus was isolated from wildlife except for theindex case Introduction of FMDV by wildlife is less likely thanintroduction due to movement of domestic animals oranimal products FMD will not be sustainable within a wild boar anddeer host system alone but limited spread of FMDV intime and space may occur Continued cross-over of FMDV between domestic andwildlife population may prolong virus circulation Wildlife population is not able to maintain FMD in theabsence of FMDV infection in the domestic host population10
    11. 11. African Swine Fever (ASF) Infects domestic/wild swine European wild boar get sick, African wild swine do not Probably a tick virus with pigs as accidental hosts Competent Vectors in US O. coriaceus: Pacific coast Calif. & Mexico O. turicata: Southern U.S. up to Kansas Direct and indirect transmission Acute and chronic disease forms Recovered pigs may be carriers for life (up to 25% estimated inRussia)11Ornithodoros sp.
    12. 12. African Swine Fever (ASF) Up to 100% morbidity Mortality varies with virulence (0-100%) Virus usually disappears from wild boar when disease iscontrolled in domestic swine Lower virulent strains are emerging Can be very difficult to diagnose Historically present in Sub-Saharan Africa & Sardinia Virus escaped Africa via pork products Spread in 2007 to the Caucasus and then Russia Serious threat to Europe (wild boar & smuggled pork)12
    13. 13. ASF: Geographic Distribution13Source: World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID), OIE
    14. 14. Classical Swine Fever (CSF) Highly contagious, economically costly viral disease ofswine; Hog Cholera Natural Hosts: pig and wild boar Enveloped RNA virus, one serotype family Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVD) U.S. declared CSF free in 1978 aftera 16 year eradication campaign Cost $140 million (est. cost over $525 million today) Assumed disease not maintained in feral/wild pigs
    15. 15. CSF: Continual Risk of Introduction Worldwide distribution Ease of access to the virus Currently circulating viral strains arepredominately low/moderatelyvirulent, may delay detectionSource: World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID), OIE
    16. 16.  Outbreaks not necessarily self-limiting CSF endemic in some wild boarpopulations Germany: 1990-98, ~59%of outbreaks due to direct/indirect contact with infectedwild boars Economic costs due to controlmeasures ~US $1.5 billion Italy – Illegal to huntCSF in Wild BoarCSF outbreaks in wild boar, 1990 – 2001Source: Artois et al. 200216
    17. 17. Factors influencing disease spread in feral swine1. Population distribution and density2. Social and spatial structure3. Movements4. Habitat connectivity5. Inter-species contact17
    18. 18. Factors influencing disease spread in feral swine1. Population distribution/density Distributions continue to increase in the US Natural dispersal from existent populations Release or escape of domestic swine that then become feral Escape from hunting preserves or confinement operations European wild boar importation Purposeful translocation and release by humans for sport hunting Feral swine are extremely adaptable Reliable and adequate food and water supply and vegetation cover Opportunistic omnivores, lack of predators Densities higher in resource-rich areas Human environment change has made habitat more favorable for feral swine Behaviorally adaptive, difficult (impossible) to eradicate18
    19. 19. 2. Social and spatial structure Form social groups calledsounders Consist of two or more sowsand their young Majority younger pigs Adult boars are usually solitary Territorial Interaction during breeding, at common water/food sources Usually nocturnal, seldom move during the dayFactors influencing disease spread in feral swinePhoto courtesy of Fred Parker19
    20. 20. 3. Population dynamics Highest reproductive capacity of all large, free-ranging mammals 1-2 litters of 4–8 piglets per year Populations can double in 4 months 70% of population would need to be killed to keep current status quo Populations are resource driven Survival of piglets dependent on rainfall, food availability and predation rates In good years, populations rapidly recover to large numbers after highmortalityFactors influencing disease spread in feral swine20
    21. 21. Factors influencing disease spread in feral swine4. Movements Sedentary within their home range Home range typically 3-5 square miles, up to 20 square miles Sex, age, habitat, food availability, and temperature Movement is not random across the landscapeGPS data courtesy of Drs. H. Morgan Scott and Susan Cooper 21
    22. 22. 5. Habitat connectivity Connectivity of populations across fragmented landscapes Interaction between social groups Population structure Overlapping homeranges – where? Landscape barriersFactors influencing disease spread in feral swinePhoto courtesy of Drs. H. Morgan Scott and Susan Cooper 22
    23. 23. 6. Intra- and inter-species contact Feral swine are sympatric with outdoor domestic livestock and otherwildlife species Predation on calves, lambs, goat kids, exotic gameFactors influencing disease spread in feral swinePhotos courtesy of Henry Coletto 23
    24. 24. Interplay of ecological and epidemiologicalfactors affecting disease spread in feral swineSource: Kramer-Schadt et al. 2007
    25. 25. The Problem GAO (2009): “If wildlife became infected *with a foreign animaldisease+…response would be greatly complicated and could require moreveterinarians and different expertise.” US response plans Assess the risk wildlife present andstrategies to prevent domestic/wildlifeinteraction – how? What we do not know: Fade-out or become endemic? Time to detection? Potential domestic/wild pig interaction? Control and mitigation strategies? Lack of data to develop a wildlife epidemic model with confidencePhoto courtesy of Henry Coletto
    26. 26. 26CA Wild Pig Project: The Approach Collect empirical data on California wild pigs Global positioning systems (GPS) Geographic information systems (GIS) Landscape genetics Data collection and analyses based on factorsimportant to disease spread: Habitat, movements, contacts, populationconnectivity
    27. 27. Wild Pigs in California Estimated population variesfrom 200,000-1 million Non-native, invasive species Year-round hunting, no baglimit Hybrid: feral swine/EurasianboarCalifornia Dept. of Fish & Game27
    28. 28. CA wild pig project 3 study areas representingdifferent ecoregions North Coast Redwoods, oak Central Coast Oak, grasslands San Joaquin Valley Oak, grasslands, riparian
    29. 29. The Data Sampling sounders and boars Locations monitored Collar stays on pigs for 10 wks GPS locations every 15 min(7pm-7am); every 1 hr (7am-7pm) Blood samples – USDA:APHIS WS ASF, FMD, CSF, influenza, PRV,brucellosis, trichinella, tularemia,Hepatitis E, E. coli, toxoplasmosis Genetic samples Hair, tissues, blood
    30. 30.  Movement patterns How do pigs move through different habitattypes? Factors associated with habitatselection Where do pigs spend their time? Habitat connectivity What is the spatial extent of contact between(sub)populations?30Data Analyses
    31. 31.  Analyses focus on parametersused in current wildlife diseasemodels Movement parameters Day/night, daily, weekly, monthly movements; hog type Environmental and seasonal assessments Probability of contact between social groups (herdsof wild pigs)31GPS data analyses
    32. 32. Mendocino County, CA32
    33. 33. August 12, 201133
    34. 34. August 17, 201134
    35. 35. 35Wild pig GPS data: July-Oct 2011
    36. 36. 36Data analyses Longitudinal analyses; seasonality will be assessed after all data collected Current feral swine disease model parameters: Random movement of wild pigs within circular home ranges; 1kmdaily movement distance1-3 Mobility models sensitive to daily herd movement distances1-2Study siteHog type(number)Distance traveledduring the dayDistance traveled inpreferred habitatDistance traveled per day(CI)North CoastBoar (9)Sounder (8)54% less 49% less8.89 km (7.893, 9.887)5.97 (5.20, 6.74)Central CoastBoar (3)Sounder (4)58% less 45% less7.77 km (6.45, 8.26)4.53 (3.87, 5.28)TexasBoar (9)Sounder (31)65% less 43% less6.45 km (5.44, 7.46)4.43 km (3.71, 5.14)1. Cowled et al. 20122. Kramer-Schadt et al. 20093. Milne et al. 2008
    37. 37.  Aim: To assess the association between landscape pattern andhabitat selectionAdapted from Chetkiewicz et al. 2006Data Analyses:(2) Factors associated with habitat selection
    38. 38. Population connectivity Landscape genetics = population genetics +landscape ecology + spatial statistics Characterizes areas between habitats andtheir influence on biological/ecologicalprocesses (connectivity) Landscape metrics Gene flow/relatedness Effective population size Barriers to gene flow
    39. 39. 39Expected OutcomesAdapted from Chetkiewicz et al. 2006
    40. 40. 40Implications for foreign animal diseases Understanding potential FAD spread requiresknowledge of wild pig distribution Habitat selection Understanding movements and potential contact Spatial extent/velocity of disease spread Identifying areas of increased disease spread Where to look?
    41. 41. Implications for disease control Identifying areas to focus mitigation strategies Disconnect subpopulations of wild pigs? Future directions: Data generalizations Wildlife epidemic model Domestic/wildlife interaction Disease control strategiesPhoto courtesy of Henry Coletto
    42. 42. Acknowledgements Supported by the Foreign Animal Disease Modeling Program ofthe U. S. Department of Homeland Security Science &Technology Directorate Drs. Pam Hullinger, Tim Carpenter, Este Geraghty (UCDavis), Morgan Scott (Kansas State Univ.) Collaborators USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services – Shannon Chandler CA Dept. of Fish & Game – Ben Gonzales, Marc Kenyon Dick Seever, Rural Pig Management, CA Private land owners, CA
    43. 43. Questions?43

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