Effects of Preweaning Factors on    Sow Lifetime Productivity         Dr. Joe Cassady, PhD. PAS       Department of Animal...
Outline●   Introduction●   Background●   Justification●   Research Objective●   Project Description●   Current Status●   F...
Introduction●   In 2009, more than 1 billion people worldwide    were undernourished, according to “The State    of Food I...
Introduction●   American pork producers have remained    competitive in the global market despite higher    labor and inpu...
Introduction●   New methods must be devised for producing    pork that reduce inputs, minimize environmental    impacts, p...
Introduction●   Many factors impact sow lifetime productivity.    — Gilt development    — Boar exposure    — Estrus detect...
Introduction●   The impact of gilt preweaning management on    sow lifetime productivity is not well understood.
Background●   Donald HP, 1939, The relative importance of sow    and litter during the growth of suckling pigs: a    compa...
Nelson and Robison 1976, J. Anim.             Sci., 43: 71--77●   Used cross-fostering to create litters of 6 and    litte...
Nelson and Robison 1976, J. Anim.         Sci., 43: 71--77
Robison, OW, 1981, Livestock         Production Science, 8:121--137●   Robison OW, 1981, The influence of maternal    effe...
Robison, OW, 1981, Livestock      Production Science, 8:121--137●   These results suggest that maternal    performance sho...
Holl and Robison, 2003, J. Anim. Sci.●   Published the results of 9 generations of    selection for increased litter size....
Holl and Robison, 2003 J. Anim. Sci.
Times have changed●   Average number born alive increased by 10%    from 1998 to 2008 (10.2 to 11.4) (PIGCHAMP    1998, 20...
Justification●   The impact of the preweaning environment    and management on sow lifetime    productivity in modern swin...
Recent Work●   We have completed 2 projects related to    preweaning factors impacting pig    performance.
Fix et al. 2010
Birth wt. vs. Probability of being a full           value market hog.                          Pigs that were classified  ...
Fix et al., 2010, Livestock Science
Fix et al., 2010, Livestock Science
Bishop, 2011http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/7079/1/etd.pdfTable 3. Least squares means and standard er...
The 10K Gilt Project
Objective●   To estimate the impact of preweaning    environment and management of gilts on    subsequent sow lifetime pro...
Production System●   Two 1200 sow multiplication units within the    Murphy-Brown, LLC system.●   After leaving the nurser...
Methods●   Born between June 1st and Dec. 1st, 2012●   13,000 gilts will be tagged at birth.●   Both individual and litter...
Methods●   Cross-foster status will be documented●   Sex ratio of the litter at birth, after cross-    fostering, and at w...
Methods●   Mortality will be documented through 4th    parity●   Weaning weights will be taken one or two    days prior to...
Methods●   Female performance will be documented on    each sow farm.●   Data will be submitted to a centralized data    b...
Current Status                                     NumberTotal tagged gilts                     8,213Gilts that were tagge...
Projections                                NumberLitters                            2,000Total tagged gilts               ...
Future Direction   We will continue to tag gilts and record data until    we have successful tagged 13,000 gilts.   We w...
Future Direction   Gilts were from single-sire matings.   Tail tissue was retained on each gilt at birth as a    source ...
Funding●   National Pork Board●   Murphy-Brown, LLC●   Smithfield Premium Genetics●   North Carolina Agriculture Research ...
Acknowledgements●   Dr. Ashley DeDecker – Murphy-Brown, LLC.●   Dr. Kent Gray - SPG●   Dr. Perry Harms - SPG●   Dr. Justin...
Dr. Joe Cassady - Effects of preweaning factors on sow lifetime productivity
Dr. Joe Cassady - Effects of preweaning factors on sow lifetime productivity
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Dr. Joe Cassady - Effects of preweaning factors on sow lifetime productivity

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Effects of preweaning factors on sow lifetime productivity - Dr. Joe Cassady, from the 2012 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 15-18, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

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Dr. Joe Cassady - Effects of preweaning factors on sow lifetime productivity

  1. 1. Effects of Preweaning Factors on Sow Lifetime Productivity Dr. Joe Cassady, PhD. PAS Department of Animal Science North Carolina State University
  2. 2. Outline● Introduction● Background● Justification● Research Objective● Project Description● Current Status● Future Direction
  3. 3. Introduction● In 2009, more than 1 billion people worldwide were undernourished, according to “The State of Food Insecurity”, an annual report from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
  4. 4. Introduction● American pork producers have remained competitive in the global market despite higher labor and input costs through adoption of technology leading to greater productivity and efficiency.
  5. 5. Introduction● New methods must be devised for producing pork that reduce inputs, minimize environmental impacts, provide for improved pig welfare, and ensure a safe, nutritious pork supply.● Sow lifetime productivity is directly linked to economic efficiency, biological efficiency, feed costs, and pig welfare.
  6. 6. Introduction● Many factors impact sow lifetime productivity. — Gilt development — Boar exposure — Estrus detection — Gestation housing — Lactation feed intake — Herd health — Etc.
  7. 7. Introduction● The impact of gilt preweaning management on sow lifetime productivity is not well understood.
  8. 8. Background● Donald HP, 1939, The relative importance of sow and litter during the growth of suckling pigs: a comparison of fostered and normally reared pigs. Emp. J. Exp. Agric.● He concluded that the dam and nurse dam influenced growth rate equally.
  9. 9. Nelson and Robison 1976, J. Anim. Sci., 43: 71--77● Used cross-fostering to create litters of 6 and litters of 14.● Pigs were weaned at 8 weeks of age.● Gilts from small litters were 4.5 kg heavier then those from large litters at weaning.
  10. 10. Nelson and Robison 1976, J. Anim. Sci., 43: 71--77
  11. 11. Robison, OW, 1981, Livestock Production Science, 8:121--137● Robison OW, 1981, The influence of maternal effects on the efficiency of selection; a review, Livestock Production Science.● Concluded that gilts nursed in large litters grow slower, reach puberty later, and produce smaller litters
  12. 12. Robison, OW, 1981, Livestock Production Science, 8:121--137● These results suggest that maternal performance should be measured at three to four weeks of age and prior to the initiation of creep feeding. Further, they suggest that early weaning may alleviate the negative association between direct genetic and maternal effects. This would allow more effective selection.
  13. 13. Holl and Robison, 2003, J. Anim. Sci.● Published the results of 9 generations of selection for increased litter size.● Gilts in the select line were raised in litters no larger that 10 pigs.
  14. 14. Holl and Robison, 2003 J. Anim. Sci.
  15. 15. Times have changed● Average number born alive increased by 10% from 1998 to 2008 (10.2 to 11.4) (PIGCHAMP 1998, 2008).● Pigs are weaned earlier● Diets have improved● New health challenges exist.
  16. 16. Justification● The impact of the preweaning environment and management on sow lifetime productivity in modern swine production is not well understood.
  17. 17. Recent Work● We have completed 2 projects related to preweaning factors impacting pig performance.
  18. 18. Fix et al. 2010
  19. 19. Birth wt. vs. Probability of being a full value market hog. Pigs that were classified as full value, survived till harvest, >100 kg BW, and free of injuries, belly ruptures, major health issues, etc.
  20. 20. Fix et al., 2010, Livestock Science
  21. 21. Fix et al., 2010, Livestock Science
  22. 22. Bishop, 2011http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/7079/1/etd.pdfTable 3. Least squares means and standard errors for growth traitsTrait CF a NFb P - valueNumber of pigs per litter At birth 11.1 ± 0.26 11.7 ± 0.28 0.14 At weaning 8.5 ± 0.22 8.7 ± 0.23 0.59 At nursery exit 7.3 ± 0.21 7.4± 0.22 0.74Average weight, kg At birth 1.50 ± 0.018 1.45 ± 0.019 0.07 At weaning 5.9 ± 0.06 5.9 ± 0.07 0.34Weight variance within litter At birth 0.08 ± 0.005 0.08 ± 0.005 0.46 At weaning 1.2 ± 0.06 1.1 ± 0.06 0.42Average daily gain, kg/ d Pre-weaning 0.21 ± 0.003 0.20 ± 0.003 0.21a CF = Cross foster treatmentb NF = Non-cross foster treatment
  23. 23. The 10K Gilt Project
  24. 24. Objective● To estimate the impact of preweaning environment and management of gilts on subsequent sow lifetime productivity.
  25. 25. Production System● Two 1200 sow multiplication units within the Murphy-Brown, LLC system.● After leaving the nursery gilts will go to 1 of 4 gilt development units.● Finally gilts will be sent to one of 10 commercial sow farms.
  26. 26. Methods● Born between June 1st and Dec. 1st, 2012● 13,000 gilts will be tagged at birth.● Both individual and litter birth weights will be recorded
  27. 27. Methods● Cross-foster status will be documented● Sex ratio of the litter at birth, after cross- fostering, and at weaning will be recorded.● Weaning weights will be taken one or two days prior to weaning.
  28. 28. Methods● Mortality will be documented through 4th parity● Weaning weights will be taken one or two days prior to weaning.
  29. 29. Methods● Female performance will be documented on each sow farm.● Data will be submitted to a centralized data base.● Sow lifetime productivity is defined as pigs per female per day of herd-life
  30. 30. Current Status NumberTotal tagged gilts 8,213Gilts that were tagged for weaning 6,975Tagged gilts that have been weaned 5,677Deaths up to last weaning 1,298Litters weaned 1,088Nursery Deaths 90Gilts moved to finishers 2,623
  31. 31. Projections NumberLitters 2,000Total tagged gilts 13,000Gilts Weaned 10,500Gilts Placed in the Finisher 9,500Gilts Available for Selection 9,000Gilts Entering Sow Farms 7,250Gilts Farrowing 6,000P4 litters produced 2,000
  32. 32. Future Direction We will continue to tag gilts and record data until we have successful tagged 13,000 gilts. We will continue to record mortalities from birth until entry into the sow farm and beyond. We will record performance on the sow farm including
  33. 33. Future Direction Gilts were from single-sire matings. Tail tissue was retained on each gilt at birth as a source of DNA. Pending the outcome of the initial experiment and the availability of funding, we intend to genotype a sample of the gilts to identify genomic regions associated with variation in sow lifetime productivity.
  34. 34. Funding● National Pork Board● Murphy-Brown, LLC● Smithfield Premium Genetics● North Carolina Agriculture Research Service
  35. 35. Acknowledgements● Dr. Ashley DeDecker – Murphy-Brown, LLC.● Dr. Kent Gray - SPG● Dr. Perry Harms - SPG● Dr. Justin Holl● Dr. Mark Knauer – NCSU● Dr. Mark Estienne – Virginia Tech● Mr. Tom Hagood – Murphy-Brown, LLC.● Ms. Amanda Cross - NCSU● Ms. Emily Cook - NCSU● Ms. Cassie Farring - NCSU● Mr. Stewart Callahan– Virginia Tech

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