Salmonella enteritidisSalmonella enteritidis
(SE) Surveillance(SE) Surveillance
Program: ApplicationsProgram: Applications...
SE Applications and LessonsSE Applications and Lessons
LearnedLearned
 History of SE in the USHistory of SE in the US
 R...
SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk
Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers
The rep...
SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk
Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers
 SE fo...
National Poultry Improvement PlanNational Poultry Improvement Plan
 Breeder sources first toBreeder sources first to
be e...
NPIP US SE Clean ProgramNPIP US SE Clean Program
 Parents hatch from SE negative stockParents hatch from SE negative stoc...
NPIP US SE Clean ProgramNPIP US SE Clean Program
 19 parent flocks have19 parent flocks have
tested positive for SEtested...
Breeder – Best ManagementBreeder – Best Management
PracticesPractices
 BiosecurityBiosecurity
 Feed ingredientsFeed ingr...
Breeder – Best ManagementBreeder – Best Management
PracticesPractices
 Breeder flockBreeder flock
biosecurity practicesbi...
Breeder – Best ManagementBreeder – Best Management
PracticesPractices
 Breeder vaccinationBreeder vaccination
 Used by t...
SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk
Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers
 Hatch...
SE Outbreaks by state, 1985-1999
CDC data
CDC
Salmonella
Annual
Summary
2006
SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk
Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers
1992 - ...
SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk
Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers
 Three...
SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk
Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers
 Devel...
Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs
 Egg QualityEgg Quality
Assurance ProgramsAssurance Programs...
Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs
 PennsylvaniaPennsylvania
 MarylandMaryland
 CaliforniaCal...
Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs
 All EQAPs have Best Management PracticesAll EQAPs have Best...
Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs
 Rodent control foundRodent control found
to be highlyto be ...
Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs
Rodent IndexRodent Index
No. of miceNo. of mice
caughtcaught
...
Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs
 Training/educationTraining/education
 MeetingsMeetings
 W...
Sampling
Chick Box
Papers
Verification TestsVerification Tests Required byRequired by
ProgramsPrograms
Chick box paper testingChick box paper testin...
Manure Drag Swab Sampling
– High-rise House
Swabbing A
Cage-free
House
Swabbing
Manure
Belts
Egg testing of manure positive flocksEgg testing of manure positive flocks
 Initial testInitial test
 1000 eggs1000 eggs...
Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs
 Diversion of eggs toDiversion of eggs to
pasteurization orp...
Chance of an Egg Positive FlockChance of an Egg Positive Flock
 In PEQAPIn PEQAP
 On average for the last 5 years, appro...
VaccinesVaccines
 Not required by anyNot required by any
EQAPEQAP
 Used by producers to aidUsed by producers to aid
in r...
VaccinesVaccines
 VaccinationVaccination
 SE bacterinSE bacterin
 Usually 1x at 13 to 15Usually 1x at 13 to 15
weekswee...
SE Reduction by EQAPsSE Reduction by EQAPs
PEQAP SuccessPEQAP Success
19921992 20032003 20082008
+ Manure+ Manure
SamplesS...
SE Prevalence Ohio
Year Total
Houses
Tested
No. SE
Positive
Houses
Percent
Positive
2009 386 22 5.6
2010 435 21 4.8
2011 4...
From CDC
report, 2004
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
SE Illnesses per 100,000 persons
Foodnet data
Egg Safety Center SE ...
Salmonella Human Prevalence – EU
vs. US
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
CasesPer100,000
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
US
...
SE Human Prevalence – US vs. EU
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Casesper100,000
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
US
EU
Dr. Jean Gu...
Egg Safety Center SE Update 2007
Broiler Meat and SEBroiler Meat and SE
2004 FoodNet case-control study2004 FoodNet case-control study
““A new risk factor ...
Number of SE + Broiler CarcassNumber of SE + Broiler Carcass
Rinses By EstablishmentRinses By Establishment
Emerging Infec...
FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule
 First proposed in 2004First proposed in 2004
 Shelved in 2008 with new administr...
FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule
 Contains components of the successful EQAPsContains components of the successful ...
FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule
 Manure testing of layersManure testing of layers
 40 to 45 weeks of age40 to 45 ...
FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule
 Challenges for a national programChallenges for a national program
 Diversion of...
FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule
 Challenges (continued)Challenges (continued)
 FDA and molecular lab methods may ...
FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule
 Challenges (continued)Challenges (continued)
 Farm packed eggs now refrigerate a...
Questions??
Dr. Eric Gingerich - Salmonella enteritidis (SE) Surveillance Program: Applications and Lessons Learned
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Dr. Eric Gingerich - Salmonella enteritidis (SE) Surveillance Program: Applications and Lessons Learned

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Salmonella enteritidis (SE) Surveillance Program: Applications and Lessons Learned - Dr. Eric Gingerich, Poultry Technical Services Specialist, Diamond V, from the 2012 Annual Conference of the National Institute for Animal Agriculture, March 26 - 29, Denver, CO, USA.

More presentations at: http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2012-decreasing-resources-increasing-regulation-advance-animal-agriculture

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Dr. Eric Gingerich - Salmonella enteritidis (SE) Surveillance Program: Applications and Lessons Learned

  1. 1. Salmonella enteritidisSalmonella enteritidis (SE) Surveillance(SE) Surveillance Program: ApplicationsProgram: Applications and Lessons Learnedand Lessons Learned Eric Gingerich, DVMEric Gingerich, DVM Diamond VDiamond V NIAA Annual Mtg.NIAA Annual Mtg. March 27, 2012 – Denver COMarch 27, 2012 – Denver CO
  2. 2. SE Applications and LessonsSE Applications and Lessons LearnedLearned  History of SE in the USHistory of SE in the US  Response by USDAResponse by USDA  Response by industryResponse by industry  Response by FDAResponse by FDA
  3. 3. SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers The report that started the ball rollingThe report that started the ball rolling ““The emergence of grade A eggs as a major source ofThe emergence of grade A eggs as a major source of Salmonella enteritidis infections. New implications for theSalmonella enteritidis infections. New implications for the control of salmonellosis.”control of salmonellosis.” JAMA 1988; 259: 2103-2107.JAMA 1988; 259: 2103-2107. M. E. St Louis; D. L. Morse; M. E. Potter; T. M. DeMelfi; J.M. E. St Louis; D. L. Morse; M. E. Potter; T. M. DeMelfi; J. J. Guzewich; R. V. Tauxe; P. A. BlakeJ. Guzewich; R. V. Tauxe; P. A. Blake
  4. 4. SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers  SE found to beSE found to be transmitted within thetransmitted within the egg and not due to shellegg and not due to shell borne transmissionborne transmission  Northeastern statesNortheastern states first region tofirst region to experience a significantexperience a significant increase in SE casesincrease in SE cases
  5. 5. National Poultry Improvement PlanNational Poultry Improvement Plan  Breeder sources first toBreeder sources first to be examinedbe examined  National PoultryNational Poultry Improvement PlanImprovement Plan (NPIP) initiated US SE(NPIP) initiated US SE Clean Program for egg-Clean Program for egg- type breeders in 1989type breeders in 1989
  6. 6. NPIP US SE Clean ProgramNPIP US SE Clean Program  Parents hatch from SE negative stockParents hatch from SE negative stock  Parent flock manure tested once a month for lifeParent flock manure tested once a month for life beginning the first month of lifebeginning the first month of life  4 manure drag swabs per house4 manure drag swabs per house  2 nest/egg belt samples once in the lay house2 nest/egg belt samples once in the lay house  300 Pullorum-Typhoid blood tests @ 4 months300 Pullorum-Typhoid blood tests @ 4 months of ageof age
  7. 7. NPIP US SE Clean ProgramNPIP US SE Clean Program  19 parent flocks have19 parent flocks have tested positive for SEtested positive for SE since 1989since 1989  1 positive in 20051 positive in 2005  1 positive in 20061 positive in 2006  4 positive in 20074 positive in 2007 Source: A.R. Rhorer, USAHA 2007 Proceedings
  8. 8. Breeder – Best ManagementBreeder – Best Management PracticesPractices  BiosecurityBiosecurity  Feed ingredientsFeed ingredients  VaccinationVaccination  Hatch eggHatch egg sanitationsanitation
  9. 9. Breeder – Best ManagementBreeder – Best Management PracticesPractices  Breeder flockBreeder flock biosecurity practicesbiosecurity practices used to prevent SEused to prevent SE  Rodent controlRodent control  Traffic controlTraffic control  Bird movementBird movement equipment sanitationequipment sanitation  Clean worker andClean worker and visitor footwear,visitor footwear, clothing, and headgearclothing, and headgear plus hand sanitationplus hand sanitation
  10. 10. Breeder – Best ManagementBreeder – Best Management PracticesPractices  Breeder vaccinationBreeder vaccination  Used by the majorUsed by the major breeder in the USbreeder in the US  Must keep 300 non-Must keep 300 non- vaccinates for testingvaccinates for testing at 4 monthsat 4 months  Hatch egg sanitationHatch egg sanitation  Used by someUsed by some operationsoperations  Spray at time ofSpray at time of collectioncollection
  11. 11. SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers  HatcheriesHatcheries  Hatch only eggsHatch only eggs from breederfrom breeder flocks on NPIPflocks on NPIP SE Clean ProgramSE Clean Program  Use standardUse standard sanitationsanitation practicespractices
  12. 12. SE Outbreaks by state, 1985-1999 CDC data
  13. 13. CDC Salmonella Annual Summary 2006
  14. 14. SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers 1992 - US Secretary of Agriculture declared SE1992 - US Secretary of Agriculture declared SE and emergencyand emergency 1992-93 – SE Pilot Project Begun1992-93 – SE Pilot Project Begun 1994 – The Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance1994 – The Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP) initiatedProgram (PEQAP) initiated
  15. 15. SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers  Three critical control points correlated with SEThree critical control points correlated with SE positive layers found by the SE Pilot Projectpositive layers found by the SE Pilot Project 1.1. Positive pulletsPositive pullets 2.2. Rodent populationRodent population 3.3. C&D of house between flocksC&D of house between flocks
  16. 16. SalmonellaSalmonella Enteritidis RiskEnteritidis Risk Reduction in Commercial LayersReduction in Commercial Layers  Developed byDeveloped by PennsylvaniaPennsylvania scientistsscientists  Published in 1997Published in 1997  Covers all aspectsCovers all aspects of SE controlof SE control  Available on PSUAvailable on PSU website -website - http://pubs.cas.pshttp://pubs.cas.ps u.edu/FreePubs/pu.edu/FreePubs/p dfs/AGRS72.pdfdfs/AGRS72.pdf
  17. 17. Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs  Egg QualityEgg Quality Assurance ProgramsAssurance Programs (EQAPs)(EQAPs)  Best ManagementBest Management PracticesPractices  Education/TrainingEducation/Training  Record keepingRecord keeping  VerificationVerification
  18. 18. Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs  PennsylvaniaPennsylvania  MarylandMaryland  CaliforniaCalifornia  New YorkNew York  South CarolinaSouth Carolina  OhioOhio  New EnglandNew England  United Egg ProducersUnited Egg Producers  Company programsCompany programs
  19. 19. Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs  All EQAPs have Best Management PracticesAll EQAPs have Best Management Practices  Chicks from NPIP SE Clean breedersChicks from NPIP SE Clean breeders  BiosecurityBiosecurity  C&D of houses between flocksC&D of houses between flocks  Rodent controlRodent control  Egg sanitationEgg sanitation  Egg holding conditionsEgg holding conditions
  20. 20. Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs  Rodent control foundRodent control found to be highlyto be highly correlated to SEcorrelated to SE infection in layersinfection in layers  Rodent indexRodent index formulated in PAformulated in PA  Twelve live trapsTwelve live traps (Tin-Cats) placed in(Tin-Cats) placed in layer houselayer house  Mice counted after 7Mice counted after 7 daysdays
  21. 21. Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs Rodent IndexRodent Index No. of miceNo. of mice caughtcaught Rodent IndexRodent Index DescriptionDescription 0 to 100 to 10 11 LowLow 11-2511-25 22 ModerateModerate 26 +26 + 33 HighHigh An index of 1 or less is acceptable
  22. 22. Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs  Training/educationTraining/education  MeetingsMeetings  Written materialsWritten materials  33rdrd party audit visitsparty audit visits (Pennsylvania Dept(Pennsylvania Dept of Ag)of Ag)  Record keepingRecord keeping  Rodent control logRodent control log  VaccinationsVaccinations  C&DC&D  TestingTesting
  23. 23. Sampling Chick Box Papers
  24. 24. Verification TestsVerification Tests Required byRequired by ProgramsPrograms Chick box paper testingChick box paper testing PA, MD, NYPA, MD, NY Pullet manure testing, 12wPullet manure testing, 12w PA, MD, NYPA, MD, NY Young layer manure testingYoung layer manure testing (30 weeks)(30 weeks) PA, MDPA, MD Mid-lay manure testing (45Mid-lay manure testing (45 weeks)weeks) PA, MDPA, MD Post-molt manure testingPost-molt manure testing PA, MD, NYPA, MD, NY Pre-moveout testing (withinPre-moveout testing (within 8 weeks of moveout)8 weeks of moveout) NY, OH, SC, UEPNY, OH, SC, UEP
  25. 25. Manure Drag Swab Sampling – High-rise House
  26. 26. Swabbing A Cage-free House
  27. 27. Swabbing Manure Belts
  28. 28. Egg testing of manure positive flocksEgg testing of manure positive flocks  Initial testInitial test  1000 eggs1000 eggs  Pools of 20 eggsPools of 20 eggs  2 week interval2 week interval  4 tests4 tests  Continued testingContinued testing  1000 egg sample, once a1000 egg sample, once a quarterquarter
  29. 29. Egg Quality Assurance ProgramsEgg Quality Assurance Programs  Diversion of eggs toDiversion of eggs to pasteurization orpasteurization or hard-cookinghard-cooking  Required if any eggRequired if any egg pool is positivepool is positive  PA, MD, NYPA, MD, NY
  30. 30. Chance of an Egg Positive FlockChance of an Egg Positive Flock  In PEQAPIn PEQAP  On average for the last 5 years, approximately 33%On average for the last 5 years, approximately 33% of manure positive flocks have tested egg positiveof manure positive flocks have tested egg positive
  31. 31. VaccinesVaccines  Not required by anyNot required by any EQAPEQAP  Used by producers to aidUsed by producers to aid in remaining SE negative,in remaining SE negative, egg test negativeegg test negative  Only one egg positiveOnly one egg positive flock in PEQAP whereflock in PEQAP where SE bacterin has beenSE bacterin has been usedused
  32. 32. VaccinesVaccines  VaccinationVaccination  SE bacterinSE bacterin  Usually 1x at 13 to 15Usually 1x at 13 to 15 weeksweeks  Live ST vaccinesLive ST vaccines  3 applications – 2, 6, and3 applications – 2, 6, and 12 weeks12 weeks  Bacterin + live vaccineBacterin + live vaccine  Live vaccine - 2 and 6Live vaccine - 2 and 6 weeksweeks  Bacterin – 13 to 15 weeksBacterin – 13 to 15 weeks
  33. 33. SE Reduction by EQAPsSE Reduction by EQAPs PEQAP SuccessPEQAP Success 19921992 20032003 20082008 + Manure+ Manure SamplesSamples (LY-1,(LY-1, LY-2, and LY-3LY-2, and LY-3 23%23% 1.5%1.5% 1.5%1.5% ManureManure PositivePositive FlocksFlocks 38%38% 4.4%4.4% 6.5%6.5% Egg PositiveEgg Positive 1.9%1.9% 2.4%2.4%
  34. 34. SE Prevalence Ohio Year Total Houses Tested No. SE Positive Houses Percent Positive 2009 386 22 5.6 2010 435 21 4.8 2011 473 10 2.1
  35. 35. From CDC report, 2004
  36. 36. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 SE Illnesses per 100,000 persons Foodnet data Egg Safety Center SE Update 2009
  37. 37. Salmonella Human Prevalence – EU vs. US 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CasesPer100,000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US EU Dr. Jean Guard, USDA-ARS: US – Foodnet data; EU – EFSA data
  38. 38. SE Human Prevalence – US vs. EU 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Casesper100,000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US EU Dr. Jean Guard, USDA-ARS: US – Foodnet data; EU – EFSA data
  39. 39. Egg Safety Center SE Update 2007
  40. 40. Broiler Meat and SEBroiler Meat and SE 2004 FoodNet case-control study2004 FoodNet case-control study ““A new risk factor forA new risk factor for Salmonella enteritidisSalmonella enteritidis incidence is eating chicken prepared outside theincidence is eating chicken prepared outside the home”.home”.
  41. 41. Number of SE + Broiler CarcassNumber of SE + Broiler Carcass Rinses By EstablishmentRinses By Establishment Emerging Infectious Diseases, www.cdc.gov/eid, Dec08
  42. 42. FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule  First proposed in 2004First proposed in 2004  Shelved in 2008 with new administrationShelved in 2008 with new administration  Re-submitted in 2009Re-submitted in 2009  Announced Final Rule on July 7, 2009Announced Final Rule on July 7, 2009  ImplementationImplementation  July 2010 for farms over 50,000 layersJuly 2010 for farms over 50,000 layers  July 2012 for farm between 3000 and 50,000 layersJuly 2012 for farm between 3000 and 50,000 layers  Farms under 3000 layers exemptFarms under 3000 layers exempt
  43. 43. FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule  Contains components of the successful EQAPsContains components of the successful EQAPs  Monitoring and control program for rodents andMonitoring and control program for rodents and fliesflies  Written SE on-farm programWritten SE on-farm program  Training of on-farm person in charge of programTraining of on-farm person in charge of program  Cleaning and disinfection of houses between flocksCleaning and disinfection of houses between flocks  Chicks from NPIP SE Clean breedersChicks from NPIP SE Clean breeders  Manure testing of pullets – 14 to 16 weeks of ageManure testing of pullets – 14 to 16 weeks of age  Manure testing of layersManure testing of layers  Refrigeration at 45F within 36 hours of collectingRefrigeration at 45F within 36 hours of collecting
  44. 44. FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule  Manure testing of layersManure testing of layers  40 to 45 weeks of age40 to 45 weeks of age  4 to 6 weeks post-molt4 to 6 weeks post-molt  Egg testing if manure is SE +Egg testing if manure is SE +  1000 eggs at 2-week intervals, 4 tests1000 eggs at 2-week intervals, 4 tests  If all negative, no further testing and remains onIf all negative, no further testing and remains on shell marketshell market  If positive, must divert to pasteurization or hard-If positive, must divert to pasteurization or hard- cookingcooking
  45. 45. FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule  Challenges for a national programChallenges for a national program  Diversion of eggs very difficult in many parts of theDiversion of eggs very difficult in many parts of the US. Producers may have to destroy flocks withoutUS. Producers may have to destroy flocks without compensation.compensation.  Laboratory testing capabilities are lacking in manyLaboratory testing capabilities are lacking in many statesstates  Laboratories will need to purchase equipment notLaboratories will need to purchase equipment not now requirednow required  More laboratory people will be needed for eggMore laboratory people will be needed for egg testingtesting
  46. 46. FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule  Challenges (continued)Challenges (continued)  FDA and molecular lab methods may be much moreFDA and molecular lab methods may be much more sensitive than present leading to more egg testingsensitive than present leading to more egg testing and diverted flocksand diverted flocks  FDA methods more time consuming and may leadFDA methods more time consuming and may lead to delays in diversionto delays in diversion  Many states not willing to subsidize costs ofMany states not willing to subsidize costs of programprogram  TestingTesting  AuditingAuditing  Private laboratories are much more expensivePrivate laboratories are much more expensive
  47. 47. FDA Egg Safety RuleFDA Egg Safety Rule  Challenges (continued)Challenges (continued)  Farm packed eggs now refrigerate at 55FFarm packed eggs now refrigerate at 55F  Will need to add cooler capacityWill need to add cooler capacity  May lead to more thermal checksMay lead to more thermal checks
  48. 48. Questions??

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