Dr. Dave Pyburn - SIV Surveillance and Recent Fair Human Infections


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SIV Surveillance and Recent Fair Human Infections - Dr. Dave Pyburn, USDA, APHIS, VS, from the 2012 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 15-18, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

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Dr. Dave Pyburn - SIV Surveillance and Recent Fair Human Infections

  1. 1. SIV Surveillance and Recent Fair Human Infections (“Spill Over”) Dr. Dave Pyburn USDA APHIS VS Safeguarding Animal Health 1
  2. 2. Swine Influenza Virus Surveillance• Voluntary Program / Anonymous• Objectives  Monitor genetic evolution and ecology  Provide isolates for research activities  Provide isolates for progressive development of  Diagnostic reagents  Diagnostic assays  Vaccines Safeguarding Animal Health 2
  3. 3. Swine Influenza Virus Surveillance• Surveillance streams  Case compatible accessions to diagnostic laboratories  First point of contact or commingling events  Swine linked to a human case of SIV Safeguarding Animal Health 3
  4. 4. SIV Surveillance Results Safeguarding Animal Health 4
  5. 5. SIV Surveillance Results Number of accessions with each subtype present Total Accessions Accessions Accessions with H3N2 H3N2 with with with H3N2 with North Matrix family H3N2 Pandemic American not yetMonth reported Matrix Matrix reported H1N1 H1N2Oct 2011 10 5 4 1 14 13Nov 2011 15 9 3 3 21 11Dec 2011 10 7 2 1 11 13Jan 2012 9 9 0 0 11 11Feb 2012 12 7 3 2 10 4Mar 2012 3 3 1 1 13 4Apr 2012 16 7 8 1 13 10May 2012 11 2 8 1 14 7Jun 2012 30 7 1 29 16 24Jul 2012 22 1 0 21 18 25Aug 2012 … … … … … …Sep 2012 … … … … … …FY 2012 YTD Total 138 57 30 60 141 122 Safeguarding Animal Health 5
  6. 6. SIV Surveillance Numbers Safeguarding Animal Health 6
  7. 7. Human Infections• Recent H3N2v findings:  Humans linked to exposures through exhibitions (county and state fairs) - Multiple states involved  >300 people (in 10 states) have documented sickness; many were traced to exposure to swine at exhibition events (state and county fairs) Most cases have occurred in pig exhibitors and have occurred after very close contact with pigs over a relatively long period of time 16 hospitalizations and one death associated with H3N2v• Also human infections (4) with H1N2v linked with swine exposure in one state (+H1N1v) Safeguarding Animal Health 7
  8. 8. Human Infections• Limited human-to-human transmission of H3N2v virus is thought to have occurred in the fall and winter of 2011  2012 H3N2v very similar to the H3N2v viruses found in 2011  No sustained community transmission of this virus taking place at this time but some human to human looks likely  CDC is monitoring for changes in the virus and potential person-to-person transmission of H3N2v Safeguarding Animal Health 8
  9. 9. H3N2v• Influenza A (H3N2) viruses with genes from avian, swine, and human viruses that normally circulate in swine• When human infections with these viruses occur, these viruses are called “variant” viruses (thus the “v”)• When these viruses are found in swine, they are called swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses.• M gene from 2009 pH1N1 Safeguarding Animal Health 9
  10. 10. H1N2v• Prolonged contact with pigs at a fair  First time this virus has been found in humans• Two of the people had underlying health conditions that placed them at high risk of serious flu complications  One of the two people with high risk factors was hospitalized  All recovered• Susceptible to antiviral drugs oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and zanamivir (Relenza®)• M gene from 2009 pH1N1 Safeguarding Animal Health 10
  11. 11. Public Guidance• CDC recommends annual seasonal influenza vaccination for all persons aged 6 months and older to protect against seasonal influenza viruses  Unlikely to protect against variant influenza viruses• For high risk persons (age and medical factors) - avoiding or minimizing exposure to pigs or pig barns at fairs Safeguarding Animal Health 11
  12. 12. Public GuidanceRecently, CDC and 4-H issued a fact sheet titled “Influenza H3N2v: Key FactsFor People Exhibiting Pigs at Fairs .” (Available athttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/swineflu/h3n2v-key-facts-exhibiting-pigs-at-fairs.htm.)CDC and USDA have issued a fact sheet titled “Issues for Fair Organizers toConsider When Planning Fairs.” (Available athttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/swineflu/h3n2v-fairs-planning.htm.)Additionally, CDC has issued a fact sheet for fair goers entitled “Take Actionto Prevent the Spread of Flu Between People and Pigs at Fairs.” (Available athttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/swineflu/h3n2v-fairs-factsheet.htm.) Safeguarding Animal Health 12
  13. 13. Take Home Thoughts• Influenza A viruses have been isolated from many species including humans, pigs, horses, marine mammals, and birds• One notable commonality between H1N2v, H1N1v, and H3N2v influenza viruses is that all have the M gene from the 2009 pH1N1 virus  Does the M gene confer easier transmissibility to humans?  Between humans?• Surveillance in swine can help to target surveillance in humans – geographically and for a specific virus  Effective surveillance not possible without industry willingness and participation Safeguarding Animal Health 13