Dr. Don Giesting - Feeding options to fit pig health

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Feeding options to fit pig health - Dr. Don Giesting, Cargill, from the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 14-17, 2013, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2013-leman-swine-conference-material

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  • Villus height as % of the villus height before weaning, presented until day 28 after weaning. Villus height is reduced substantially in the first week after weaning: Provimi Research, Wijtten 2011.
  • Villus length in micro meter of piglets before weaning, and of piglets 7 days after weaning with a high feedintake or with a restricted feed intake. (Verdonk et al. 2007).
  • Antibiotic: PulmotilDiets with 235 ppm CU (from CUSO4) and 3000 ppm Zn (from ZnOPulmotil : $11 per kg feed (toc)
  • Dr. Don Giesting - Feeding options to fit pig health

    1. 1. Feeding To Fit Pig Health Don Giesting, Ph.D. Cargill Incorporated . © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. A short journey • Pre-weaning – what can we do to wean more, bigger pigs ready to grow after weaning? • Post-weaning – what can we do to optimize performance of the pigs we have? – Management – Nutrition • Future opportunities 2 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. The pig feeding challenge • More and more pigs are born per sow: – Lower birth weight – More small pigs – More low viability pigs • More pig have to share colostrum and milk • More pigs are weaned (at young age) – Lower weaning weights – More small pigs are weaned • Health challenges – Virus infections suppress immunity (PRRS/Circo) – Bacterial infections reduce performance Raising healthy pigs is a real challenge! 3 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. To prepare pigs for life away from the sow, they need to be able feed themselves. • Creep Feeding is the practical opportunity we have to prepare pigs before weaning (This may not be a practical way to deliver the creep feed) 4 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Effect of litter size and creep feed on weaning weight No creep feed Weaning weight (lbs/pig) . 21.0 With creep feed 19.0 17.0 15.0 13.0 11.0 9.0 7.0 5.0 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Litter size (no. pigs) The larger the litter, the more critical creep feeding is to weaning weight Source: Kavanagh, 1995 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved. 5
    6. 6. The importance of creep feeding on post-weaning performance (4-week weaning) 55.0 50.0 45.0 40.0 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 48.1 49.4 53.4 50.7 25.1 23.6 6.8 7.1 8.2 8.4 17.9 18.7 18.7 19.8 0.67 Weight (lbs) 23.4 23.8 .67-1.1 1.1-1.5 >1.5 Prestarter intake before weaning (lbs/pig) at Wng 12 d PstWng 33 d PstWng Source: CAN GIC NL 6 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. Effect of varying creep feed duration on preweaning and post-weaning performance (Yan et al., 2011, AAJAS) • 21 day weaning age • Duration of creep feeding: 6, 11 and 16 days • Creep feed – 24% Lactose – 4% SD Porcine Plasma – 6% Isolated Soy Protein – 10% Fermented SBM 7 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. Effect of varying creep feed duration on preweaning and post-weaning performance Days creep feeding 16 11 6 0 Day 0-21; pre-wng .46 .46 .43 .44 D 21-28; wk 1 post-wng .50 .46 .43 .43 Diarrhea score, 7d post-wng 4.25b 4.75b 6.20ab 9.80a Estrus interval, days 4.50b 4.50b 5.00a 5.30a Back fat loss, mm 0.23 0.18 0.57 0.38 Epinephrine, pg/ml 14.1b 22.1ab 33.0a 34.2a Norepinephrine, pg/ml 101b 159ab 171ab 190a Cortisol, Ug/dl 2.78b 2.84b 4.16a 4.28a ADG, lbs/pig Sows Source: Yan et al., 2011 8 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. Consider a special creep feed; not standard starter feed • Piglets enzyme systems are not well developed limiting digestion of most standard starter feed at young age – Lower protein reduces fermentation in hind gut – Simple or processed carbohydrates including lactose – Limited supplemental fat – Highly palatable • Good pellet or crumble • No medication: – Antibiotics may reduce palatability and lower feed intake – Risk of under-dosing  increase risk of resistance? 9 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Feeding the pig before weaning • The more feed intake the better – Feed a creep feed designed for this purpose – Start at about 5 days of age – optimal; 10 days at the latest – Supply fresh feed to the animals daily • Supply water that pigs can readily access • Ideal feeder: – maximum height of 3 inches – Mat is OK, if feed can be managed to limit waste and provide access almost continuously – placed where activity is 10 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. Post-weaning pig feeding How do we help pigs recover from weaning? . © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. The importance of healthy gastrointestinal tract Picture: CAN research NL 12 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. After weaning, villus length is reduced substantially Villous height, % of weaning 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 7 14 21 Time after weaning, d 28 Source: CAN NL Research, Wijtten 2011 13 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. High feed intake after weaning results in longer intestinal villi 600 micrometer 500 before weaning 491Um High feed intake 268 g/d) 438 Um 400 Low feed intake (185 g/d) 354 Um 300 200 100 0 feed intake Source: Verdonk et al. 2007 14 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. Newly weaned pigs are in an energy deficient state - energy intake can take 7-21 days to equal that right before weaning 15 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. Pigs that consume more creep feed in lactation eat more quickly after weaning % Not eating at time points 100 90 eater 80 non-fed 70 non-eater 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Latency to first feed intake, hours Source: Bruininx et al., 2002 16 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. How many days to feed creep feed postweaning? Trial 1: CAN - Spain (weaning age 24 days, 7 kg weaning weight) Change creep feed to prestarter feed: 4 days post weaning 6 days post weaning 8 days post weaning 10 days post weaning Trial 2: CAN - Netherlands. (weaning age 21 days, 6.2 kg weaning weight) Change creep feed to prestarter feed: 2 days post weaning 4 days post weaning 7 days post weaning 17 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. Trial 1 TAC Spain Effect of longer creep feed (phase 1) feeding on weight 25 days post weaning 40.4 40.5 40.3 39.9 Weight (lbs) 40.0 39.5 39.0 38.6 38.5 38.0 37.5 4 Days 6 Days 8 Days 10 Days Days Post Weaning of creep feed before change to prestarter Optimal benefit ~1 week of Creep Feed after weaning Source : CAN TAC Spain 18 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Trial 2 GIC Netherlands Effect of longer creep feed (phase 1) feeding on weight 21 days post weaning 25.7 25.8 25.5 Weight (lbs) 25.6 25.4 25.2 25.0 24.9 24.8 24.6 24.4 2 Days 4 Days 7 Days Days Post Weaning of creep feed before change to prestarter Optimal benefit ~ 4-7 days of Creep Feed after weaning Source : CAN GIC NL 19 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. Effect of light on post-weaning performance 300 280 First 14 days post-weaning 300 250 250 212 200 200 168 150 150 100 Daily gain (g/d) Feed intake (g/d) 249 100 23 hours 8 hours Feed intake 23 hours 8 hours Daily gain Don’t leave pigs in the dark! Source: Van den Boogaart, 2001 20 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. Vaccination time can affect feed intake • Daily intake pattern of pigs vaccinated 1 week before weaning or with weaning at 21 days of age. 300 Feed Intake, g/d 200 100 Pigs vaccinated 1 wk before weaning Pigs vaccinated at weaning 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Days after weaning Source: Mavromichalis et al. 21 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    22. 22. Water intake is a key to post weaning feed intake • At least 1 nipple waterer per 10 pigs • With more than 1 nipple have them a minimum of 3 feet apart • Have enough output from the nipples • Clean water system 22 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    23. 23. Effect of sorting pigs going into the nursery Sorted on weight Not sorted on weight Weaning wt (lbs) 10.8 10.8 Final weight (lbs) 52.0a 53.1b Gain, (g/p/d) .91a .93b Intake, (g/p/d) 1.23a 1.26b FCR 1.36 1.36 abp<0.01 Source: CAN NA research 1760 piglets day 0 to 45 Pst-Wng 23 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    24. 24. Suggestions to enhance early, post-weaning feed intake • Creep feed in suckling period (beginning at 5-10 d of age)  more and earlier intake post-weaning • Keep same feed post-weaning as before weaning – Relatively higher energy: protein  more intake, less diarrhea – Palatable & familiar • Feeder: – Preferably open feeders to promote group eating – Enough light to see inside the feeder – Plenty of feeder space • Light is important to encourage finding the feeder and increase imitation and curiosity – keep the lights on • Sorting probably reduces intake the first few days after weaning 24 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    25. 25. Early post-weaning gain & final weight 253 255 250 Liveweight (lbs) at 156 d pst-wng 250 244 245 239 240 235 230 <0 0-.33 .33-.5 Gain (lbs/d) 0-8d post-weaning >.5 Source: Tokach et al., 1992 26 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    26. 26. Optimizing feed intake of piglets in the first week post weaning pays off! • Pigs that eat more are more resistant to disease and have better health through out the growth period • Improved average gain in the total nursery period • Better uniformity  better utilization of the building and less risk of violating all-in-all-out principles • Better “life-time performance” 27 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    27. 27. Balancing diets for varying health conditions • Macro-nutrients…Protein, Carbohydrates & Fats – Should we adjust sourcing and levels according to stress and health levels? • Additives… – How might conditions affect which ones we choose and how much benefit we get? 28 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    28. 28. Protein and amino acid nutrition • Protein paradox – – Requirements for amino acids are high to reach maximum growth – Protein in excess of digestive capability leads to fermentation and diarrhea; reduced with lower protein diet – Specific amino acid requirements to counteract gut health challenges vary from those for growth and may not be supplied at adequate levels with a low protein diet balanced to a typical ideal protein ratio • Glutamine & glutamate – increase innate and adaptive immunity (macrophage and lymphocyte) under challenge; increase gut integrity and cell division; fuel source for gut mucosal cells • Alanine & glycine – may increase anti-secretory peptide • Threonine – required for mucus proteins and gut repair • Tryptophan – may increase villus/crypt ratio, but may reduce intake • Optimal protein and amino acid feeding approach and levels may differ depending on health status and stress levels 29 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    29. 29. Carbohydrates • Lactose is expensive, but important, especially to challenged pigs – Energy source for young or challenged pigs – Acts as a prebiotic, as ~30% may be left undigested by the end of the SI – Effects may be partially replaced by other carbohydrates, fermentable fiber, prebiotics, or some acidifiers, but somewhat health dependent • Fiber effects vary – “No” fiber diets may alleviate diarrhea, $$$ – Fermentable, soluble fibers (psyllium, beet pulp, chicory (inulin), etc.) may enhance gut health and favor larger, more diverse bacterial populations & high LAB’s, but effects may be limited in high lactose diets – Insoluble fiber (brans) absorb water, reduce binding of some bad bacteria to reduce diarrhea, but dilute energy in the diet • “Grain” fibers (especially arabinoxylans) and raw starches – Generally, neutral, but with health challenges or very young pigs may increase risk of diarrhea – Processing or, potentially, enzyme supplementation may help 30 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    30. 30. Fats • Concentrated energy sources, BUT – One of the first and most predictive indicators of gut damage is reduction in fat digestibility – Medium chain fats and some unsaturated fats are generally well utilized, but expensive – Less expensive, more saturated fats are fine for healthy pigs beyond 4 weeks of age, but may not be with digestive tract challenges – In creep feeds and immediately post-weaning, if conditions are challenging, it is probably best to limit fat to modest levels (<2% added) 31 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    31. 31. Which additives work? Why? When? Zinc oxide – very consistent, relatively low cost additive improves performance, especially in stressed & challenged pigs Acidifiers – reduces diarrhea, improves digestibility, improves gain and FCR; complement or partially replace antibiotics Probiotics – yeast & bacteria • Competitive exclusion • Metabolites & enzymes • Immune protection •May aid gut repair Enzymes – diet and sometimes health dependent Additives can complement each other; or not…depends on MOA’s, levels, health challenges 32 2006 Cargill Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. © © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    32. 32. Zinc oxide – an effective and instructive additive • Concerns and regulations in parts of the world limit use, may become an issue in US; replacement requires understanding of how and why it works • Recent research is shedding light on zinc oxide – Increase IgA in the gut – Reduce genetic expression of inflammatory cytokines – Increase anti-microbial peptide secretion from bone marrow – Reduce translocation of bacteria to lymphocytes and blocks cascade leading to mast cell (limit immune system activation) – Prevent barrier leakage of macro-molecules following stress • Similar measures may help us identify, understand and improve success with other additives 33 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    33. 33. Promote ProHacid Advance improves ADG & FCR on top of antibiotics 14 days post-weaning ADG Lbs/d 0.60 0.63 b 1.41 a FCR a b 1.35 Control + antibiotic only a,b Means antibiotic + Advance within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05) . (26) 34 Control + antibiotic w/o acids antibiotic + Advance blend type Source : Cargill Application Center, NA, 2012, Antibiotic: Pulmotil, with 235 ppm Cu (from CuSO4) and 3000 ppm Zn (from ZnO) © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    34. 34. Variable challenges – adjusting nutrition High health, low stress, eating well • Lower cost diets to reduce production cost; limit lactose and plasma • Push nutrient levels higher to attain genetic potential • Allow more plant proteins and starches • Adjust additive package to maximize efficiency and lower cost of gain 35 Low health, high stress, eating poorly • Wean to creep feed • Invest in key nutrient sources – plasma, lactose • Lower plant proteins and protein levels to reduce gut damage & diarrhea • Use combinations of additives to support gut repair, intake, and reduce diarrhea © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    35. 35. Future opportunities • Better models of gut immunity, microbial status, management effects & opportunities to improve these • Understanding and providing precursors to better protect the gut – Barrier function – Healthier commensal bacterial populations – Faster gut repair when damaged – Feeding to enhance immunity, cytokine modulation • Control of gene expression to limit inflammatory, secretory factors, and gut damaging effects • Combating oxidative stress and gut damage by nutrition • Better targeted delivery of additives and nutrient precursors to key areas of the gut 36 © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved.
    36. 36. All we need to do is sort this out… © Copyright Cargill, Incorporated 2013. All rights reserved. 37

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