Dr. Pedro Urriola - Pig Nutritional Requirements for Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D

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Pig Nutritional Requirements for Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D - Dr. Pedro Urriola, Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, from the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 14-17, 2013, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

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Dr. Pedro Urriola - Pig Nutritional Requirements for Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D

  1. 1. Nutritional requirements for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D in growing pigs Pedro Urriola and Jerry Shurson Department of Animal Science
  2. 2. Introduction Nutritional management of Ca, P, and Vitamin D has 4 objectives: Lean growth Bone strength Diet cost Environment
  3. 3. Overview • Dietary requirements for P and Ca are dynamic, but poorly defined for vitamin D • Concentrations and digestibility of P and Ca vary among and within feed ingredients • Premixes are formulated to contain generous amounts of vitamin D: – uncertainty of requirements – low content in other diet feed ingredients
  4. 4. Introduction • Previous mentioned issues of mortality and lameness were linked to hypovitaminosis D • However, not all events may necessary be due to low vitamin D • Interplay of 3 nutrients on requirements and nutrient concentration • Therefore, a review of the requirements is necessary Vit D P Ca
  5. 5. Objectives • Review NRC (2012) approach for determining Ca and P requirements for swine • Review usefulness of models of digestion and metabolism • Review requirements of Vit D in bone growth and health management
  6. 6. Nutritional requirements for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D in growing pigs CONCENTRATIONS IN FEED INGREDIENTS
  7. 7. Form of Ca and P in feed ingredients • About 60% of P in cereal grains is present as phytate • Pigs cannot digest phytate • Phytase enzymes are added to feed to release P from phytate – Phytase activity is defined as FTU and varies among commercial products – Reduces the need for inorganic supplementation – Reduces P excreted in manure
  8. 8. How do we measure the concentration and utilization of Ca and P in diets for pigs? • Total P • Available P • Apparent total tract digestible • Standardized total tract digestible
  9. 9. Concentration, availability and digestibility of Ca, P, and phytate (%, as-fed basis) Ca P Phytate Avail. of P1 STTD of P2 Corn 0.02 0.26 0.21 - 34.0 Soybean meal 0.33 0.71 0.38 - 48.0 DDGS 0.12 0.73 0.26 - 65.0 Dical-P 24.8 18.8 - 49.5 81.4 Monocal-P 70 16.9 21.5 - 68.9 53.4 1Availability of phosphorus 2Standardized ileal digestibility of phosphorus
  10. 10. Availability P system was used to measure P in feed ingredients Slope 1 standard = 0.5 Slope for test = 0.25 Ratio = 0.25/0.5 = 0.5 1.2 1 y = 0.5x - 1 R² = 1 0.8 Bone strength 0.6 0.4 Test ingredient 50% y = 0.25x - 1 R² = 1 0.2 0 -0.2 0 1 2 3 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 Inclusion level or intake 4 5 Standard Ing. Test Ing. Linear (Standard Ing.) Linear (Test Ing.)
  11. 11. Availability system reduces total diet P while meeting the animals requirement C-SBM 100 g/kg DDGS 200 g/kg DDGS Total P Total P Available P Total P Available P Ingredient g/kg as fed Corn DDGS Soybean meal Dical phosphate Limestone 615.2 540.2 540.7 465 466.1 0 100 100 200 200 332.1 305.6 305.4 279.1 278.8 10.8 9.4 8.8 8.1 6.3 7.2 8.2 8.6 9.2 10.5 Calculated nutrient concentration (g/kg DM) Total phosphorus 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.3 5.9 Available P 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.8 3.4 Hanson et al. (2012)
  12. 12. Formulation of diets on an available P basis reduces total P intake when using DDGS P intake, g/d 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3 2.9 CSB Hanson et al. (2012) 10D-TP 10D-AP2 20D-TP3 20D-AP4
  13. 13. Formulation of diets on an available P basis reduces P excretion when using DDGS P excretion, g/d 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 CSB Hanson et al. (2012) 10D-TP 10D-AP2 20D-TP3 20D-AP4
  14. 14. Digestibility system account for undigested P and adopted NRC (2012) • Apparent • Standardized – Endogenous losses • True Stein et al. (2007)
  15. 15. Outflow, g/kg DMI But not all P excreted in feces comes from the diet → endogenous losses Specific Basal Intake, g/kg Fernandez (1995); Stein et al. (2007)
  16. 16. The STTD digestibility system accounts for endogenous losses of P • Apparent (ATTD) • Standardized (STTD) – Endogenous losses • True (TTTD) Stein et al. (2007)
  17. 17. Use of the STTD system reduces the amount of inclusion of monocal phosphate Item Ingredient composition, % Corn SBM DDGS Monocal phosphate Nutrient composition Total P, % STTD of P, % Fangzu et al. (unpublished data) Diet 1 Diet 2 STTD of P, % 64.5 32.6 1.07 43.7 13.2 40 0.4 26 39 65 83 0.61 0.31 0.64 0.31 51 48
  18. 18. What about vitamins in diets?
  19. 19. Bioavailability is used to measure vitamin activity in feed ingredients and synthetic sources 1.2 Slope 1 standard = 0.5 Slope for test = 0.25 Ratio = 0.25/0.5 = 0.5 Outcome variable (BW) 1 0.8 Test ingredient 50% bioavailability 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Standard Ing. Test Ing. Linear (Standard Ing.) Linear (Test Ing.) -0.4 y = 0.5x - 1 R² = 1 -0.6 -0.8 -1 Inclusion level or intake y = 0.25x - 1 R² = 1
  20. 20. Concentration of vitamin D is expressed as international units (IU) • The IU of VitD = biological activity of 0.025 μg of cholecalciferol • Another prominent form is ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) found in plant materials.
  21. 21. Concentration of vitamins in premixes and diets • Factors that affect the bioavailability and degradation of vitamins in premixes: – – – – – – Humidity Sun light exposure Heat pH Presence of oxidative agents Type of inorganic trace minerals (Shurson et al., 2011) • Under practical applications, concentrations provided by premixes are at levels several times (2 to 3x) greater than recommended levels in the final diet (Richert, 2012).
  22. 22. Nutritional requirement for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D in growing pigs USE OF MODELS TO ESTIMATE DIETARY REQUIREMENTS
  23. 23. Dietary requirements of Ca and P are dynamic • There is no standard recommendation (NRC 2012), rather is calculated • Optimal lean growth can be obtained with 85% of P for optimal bone growth • Observe impact of dry matter intake
  24. 24. No all phytase enzyme have the same effect of apparent total tract digestibility of P, % 60 52.7 47.4 ATTD of P, % 50 39.6 36.3 32.1 40 29.7 30 Natuphos Optiphos Phyzyme Ronozyme 22.8 18.4 20 13.3 10 0 0 200 400 600 800 Phytase units, Kerr et al. (2012) 1000 1200
  25. 25. Nutritional requirement for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D in growing pigs DIETARY REQUIREMENT OF VITAMIN D
  26. 26. Nutritional recommendations of vitamin D (NRC, 2012) • Sow: – Changed from 200 to 800 IU/kg diet • Growers: – 220 IU/kg • Finishers: – 150 IU/kg 7dehydrocho lesterol 25-OH-D3 1, 25-OHD3 Vitmanin D receptor
  27. 27. Nutritional recommendations of vitamin D (NRC, 2012) Age BW, kg NRC, IU/kg Serum 25(OH)D, ng/mL 0 Birth 40k IU1 Outdoors2 1.5 - 2-3 4 - 3 - 8-9 60-80 - 5-6 200 5-6 20-30 58.5 Grower 25-70 150 15-20 - 61.0 Finisher 70-140 150 28 - 86.0 Day 10 At weaning 1Toussignant et al. (2013), Jang et al. (2012). 2Abbot and Madson (2012).
  28. 28. Criteria for establishing vitamin D required intake • Bone strength: – Ricketts – Osteoporosis • Health: – Antibody production
  29. 29. Supplementation increases serum 25(OH)D3, but it doesn’t mean greater growth Serum 25(OH)D3 Control 40K Vit D 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Birth d10 Weaning
  30. 30. Sometimes it improves BW of pigs after 40,000 IU of Vit D 14 12.28 12.67 12 10 8 6 5.43 5.64 6.06 6.37 Control 40 K Vit D 4 2 0 21 Tousignant et al. (2013) 28 47
  31. 31. …but it is inconsistent ADG, g/d Control 40K Vit D 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Birth Jang et al. (2012) d10 Weaning d14 postwean
  32. 32. Ergocalciferol or Cholecalciferol 25-hydroxy-D3 1, 25-hydroxy-D3 Intestine Skeletal Calcium absorption Phosphorus absorption Immune functions Bone mineralization
  33. 33. Conclusion • Dietary requirements for Ca, P, and VitD are dynamic • Constant monitoring and adjustment in diet formulations • Nutritional models are a useful tool for determining objective and dynamic requirements • New parameters need to account for differences in animal health
  34. 34. Thanks…
  35. 35. Mechanistic model of P fate in GIT of pigs Phosphorus flows stomach (STO) and the proximal (PSI) and distal (DSI) small intestine PP = phytate P; a = animal, pl = plant, min = mineral origen. PPns = nonsol PP; PPs = sol PP; NPPs = sol NPP; NPPns = nonsol NPP; Pendo = end P Létourneau-Montminy et al. (2011)
  36. 36. Synthesis of vitamin D 7dehydroch olesterol 25-OH-D3 1, 25-OHD3 Vitmanin D receptor
  37. 37. Recommended requirements • Humans: – Indoor and high latitude – IOM (2011) serum 25(OH)D: • Estimated average requirement: • Recommended daily intake: • Swine: – Indoor reared – NRC (2012) 40 nmol/L 50 nmol/L
  38. 38. Parameters of P metabolism in growing pigs with medium and high P intake (g/d) H = high P intake (g/d) M = medium P intake (g/d) Fernandez (1995)

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