Feeding for Optimal Bone Strength
2013 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference

What we are seeing at the
diagnostic laboratory
Da...
What we are seeing
• Increased clinical investigations/submissions
• Suggesting an issue or production concern
• Different...
Bone – “the organ”
• Bone is constantly being remodeled
– Throughout life; even after growth as stopped
– Bone is dynamic ...
What is metabolic bone disease?
• Disturbances related to:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Vitamin D
Can be combinations of these
Calcium
Pho...
What is metabolic bone disease?
• Terminology
– Rickets
• Abnormal endochondral ossification in a growing animal
– Defecti...
What is metabolic bone disease?
Common mechanisms:
1. Inadequate dietary supplementation of vitamin D3
2. Inadequate absor...
Potential industry issues
• Swine diets  maximum growth
• Not bone strength

• Ingredient costs
• Alternative feedstuffs
...
Clinical signs
Metabolic bone disease

• Clinical signs are variable
• Sudden death (found dead)
• Tremors/seizures (CNS l...
Clinical signs

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

Madson et al. 2012

Iowa State University
Broken bone

Rachitic rosary

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
Iowa State University
Diagnostic testing
• Assessing rib strength
Rickets (growing pigs)
Phosphorus

Rubbery bones

Calcium

Fragile bone; Break...
Diagnostic testing
• Bone analysis
– Need to know the processes
• Wet weight or dry-fat free!!!
Dry, fat free

Wet weight
...
Diagnostic testing
Wet weight

Bone Ash - Summary of 169 porcine cases
Above noraml (>35%)

Normal (25-35%)
Total

Deficie...
Diagnostic testing
• Serum
– Calcium
– Phosphorus
– Alkaline phosphate (ALP)
» Increased with bone resorption
Analyte

Vit...
Diagnostic testing
• Serum Vitamin D
– Heartland Assays. Inc (Ames, Iowa)
– Ron Horst
Darin’s Thought

Age of animal
Neona...
Diagnostic testing
• Urine?

Hagemoser et al. 2000
Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
Iowa State University
Vitamin D research - ISU
• Main goal
– Assess vitamin D levels across different ages of pigs in the
Midwest
• Two differen...
Results
**
*

35 ng/ml

15 ng/ml
5 ng/ml

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

ANOVA - * & ** indicate significant difference...
2719 total samples

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
Iowa State University
Vitamin D research – ISU take 2
Objective of proposal
– Assessing the quality of vitamin D from
multiple suppliers overtim...
Vitamin D research – ISU take 2
• Results
– No company was found
to be significantly lower
than 500,000 IU
• No difference...
Confounding issues
• Lameness failures
– Clinical assessment
– Age, weight, feed, growth rate, and watching them walk

– G...
Confounding issues
Ytrehus et al. 2007

Osteochondrosis

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
Iowa State University
Confounding issues

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae

Hygroma formation
Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
Iowa State University
Take home points
• Lameness is an industry issue
– Multiple factors are associated
• Infectious or nutritional
• The “insu...
Thank you for your attention!

QUESTIONS?

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
Iowa State University
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Dr. Darin Madson - Pig Lameness and Diagnostic Lab Views

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Pig Lameness and Diagnostic Lab Views - Dr. Darin Madson, Veterinary Diagnostic & Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, from the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, September 14-17, 2013, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2013-leman-swine-conference-material

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Dr. Darin Madson - Pig Lameness and Diagnostic Lab Views

  1. 1. Feeding for Optimal Bone Strength 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine Conference What we are seeing at the diagnostic laboratory Darin Madson madson@iastate.edu Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  2. 2. What we are seeing • Increased clinical investigations/submissions • Suggesting an issue or production concern • Different from “normal/routine” submissions • Suboptimal clinical lameness assessments • With improper sample submission • Wide variation in bone quality • The gamut of lameness etiologies found • Metabolic condition, OCD, and Mycoplasma sp. Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  3. 3. Bone – “the organ” • Bone is constantly being remodeled – Throughout life; even after growth as stopped – Bone is dynamic  tells a story! • • • • Mechanical stress Decreased nutrition Environmental stress Disease – Can be seen microscopically • Arrest and reversal lines Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  4. 4. What is metabolic bone disease? • Disturbances related to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Vitamin D Can be combinations of these Calcium Phosphorus Parathyroid hormone • Results in 1. Depletion of bone mineral storage 2. Delayed formation/modeling Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  5. 5. What is metabolic bone disease? • Terminology – Rickets • Abnormal endochondral ossification in a growing animal – Defective mineralization of growing bone – Osteomalacia • Similar to rickets, but in adult animals – Defective mineralization of bone remodeling – Fibrous osteodystrophy • Extensive bone resorption with replacement by fibrous connective tissue – Osteoporosis/Osteopenia • Reduced bone mass – Quality of remaining bone is normal Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  6. 6. What is metabolic bone disease? Common mechanisms: 1. Inadequate dietary supplementation of vitamin D3 2. Inadequate absorption of phosphorus due to low phosphorus in diet, phosphorus bound to phytate and therefore unavailable, and inadequate or ineffective phytase usage 3. Imbalance of feed calcium to phosphorus ratio; improper formulation of Ca:P ratio in diet (should be roughly 1.2:1) 4. Inadequate dietary calcium can also contribute to rachitic lesions, though these are also often confounded by accompanying osteoporosis. Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  7. 7. Potential industry issues • Swine diets  maximum growth • Not bone strength • Ingredient costs • Alternative feedstuffs • Variability in feedstuffs • Amount of ingredient • Process for inclusion (pelleting) • NRC values (outdated?) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  8. 8. Clinical signs Metabolic bone disease • Clinical signs are variable • Sudden death (found dead) • Tremors/seizures (CNS like disease) • Muscle fasciculations/tetany • Weakness • Lameness • Painful gait and reluctancy to move • Bone fractures Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  9. 9. Clinical signs Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Madson et al. 2012 Iowa State University
  10. 10. Broken bone Rachitic rosary Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  11. 11. Diagnostic testing • Assessing rib strength Rickets (growing pigs) Phosphorus Rubbery bones Calcium Fragile bone; Break easy, but snap Vitamin D Rubbery bones Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  12. 12. Diagnostic testing • Bone analysis – Need to know the processes • Wet weight or dry-fat free!!! Dry, fat free Wet weight Swine; rib bone Bone ash 58-62 % Bone density 1.4-1.5 g/ml. Bone ash Calcium 32-39% Swine; rib bone Bone ash 25-30 % Bone density 1.4-1.5 g/ml. Bone ash Calcium 32-39% Bone ash Phosphorus 13-22% Bone ash Phosphorus 13-22% Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  13. 13. Diagnostic testing Wet weight Bone Ash - Summary of 169 porcine cases Above noraml (>35%) Normal (25-35%) Total Deficient (below 25%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 number of test results within each range Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  14. 14. Diagnostic testing • Serum – Calcium – Phosphorus – Alkaline phosphate (ALP) » Increased with bone resorption Analyte Vit D deficiency Calcium deficiency Phosphorus deficiency Calcium ⬇ ⬆, ⬌ ⬆ ⬇ ⬆, ⬌ ⬆ ⬆, ⬌ ⬇ ⬆ Phosphorus ALP Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  15. 15. Diagnostic testing • Serum Vitamin D – Heartland Assays. Inc (Ames, Iowa) – Ron Horst Darin’s Thought Age of animal Neonate 10 days 3-4 weeks old Finishing pigs Mature Parturition 25-OH-D3 ng/ml 5-15 8-23 25-30 30-35 35-70 35-100 Stay above 15 ng/ml Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  16. 16. Diagnostic testing • Urine? Hagemoser et al. 2000 Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  17. 17. Vitamin D research - ISU • Main goal – Assess vitamin D levels across different ages of pigs in the Midwest • Two different time points – Once in January (2011) – Once in July (2011) • Ages of animals assessed in the surveillance – – – – – 3 week old pigs ~11 week old pigs Market hogs Gestation sows Boars 8 samples from 15 sites in each age group at each time point 1,200 total samples tested 600 samples tested in January 2011 600 samples tested in July 2011 Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  18. 18. Results ** * 35 ng/ml 15 ng/ml 5 ng/ml Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory ANOVA - * & ** indicate significant differences between January and June samples (p < 0.01) Iowa State University
  19. 19. 2719 total samples Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  20. 20. Vitamin D research – ISU take 2 Objective of proposal – Assessing the quality of vitamin D from multiple suppliers overtime • 5 feed manufactures • Sample bulk vitamin D 1x per month – Mixed from multiple locations • Sampling for 12 months – October 2011-September 2012 Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  21. 21. Vitamin D research – ISU take 2 • Results – No company was found to be significantly lower than 500,000 IU • No difference in US vs. Foreign vitamin D manufactures – Month was found to be significant • P= 0.0022 • Storage??? Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  22. 22. Confounding issues • Lameness failures – Clinical assessment – Age, weight, feed, growth rate, and watching them walk – Gross assessment – It is more than hacking off a limb – Sample submission is key – Complexity – Correct samples – Other differentials – Knowing what to look for Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  23. 23. Confounding issues Ytrehus et al. 2007 Osteochondrosis Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  24. 24. Confounding issues Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Hygroma formation Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  25. 25. Take home points • Lameness is an industry issue – Multiple factors are associated • Infectious or nutritional • The “insult” may have occurred previously • Clinical assessments are important • Multiple samples are needed • Location can vary significantly in clinical pigs • Understand potential confounding problems – Are the findings the “real” cause of the lameness Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  26. 26. Thank you for your attention! QUESTIONS? Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University

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