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  • Types of Cells p.172-173
  • Types of Cells p.172-173
  • Cells

    1. 1. Quest 3: Cells andmicroscopes
    2. 2. NOTESDevelop a timeline showing dates andscientists that led to this theory. Include thefollowing scientists: Theodor Schwann,Matthias Schleiden, Virchow, RobertHooke, Van Leeuwenhoek, (rememberRedi, and Louis Pasteur add them also).
    3. 3. History of Cells1. Robert Hooke - 1665Observed cork (oak bark) under the microscopeFirst to see dead cellsCalledthem CELLS –they reminded him of the shape of monk dorms in monastery. 3
    4. 4. Hooke’s Microscope and Cells 4
    5. 5. Anton von Leeuwenhoek- 1674  Improved the Microscope  Looked at samples of pond and drinking water  First person to see living cells (“animalcules”)  Protista and other creatures in water 5
    6. 6. 150-200 Year Gap???Between the Hooke/Leuwenhoek discoveries and the mid 19th century, very little cell advancements were made.This is probably due to the widely accepted, traditional belief in Spontaneous Generation.Examples: -Mice from dirty clothes/corn husks -Maggots from rotting meat
    7. 7. Matthias Schleiden - 1838 Plants are made of cells 7
    8. 8. Theodor Schwann - 1839 Animals are made of cells All organisms are made of cells 8
    9. 9. Rudolph Virchow -1855 All cells come from other cells (no spontaneous generation) 9
    10. 10. NOTESState the 3 parts of the cell theory.
    11. 11. The Cell Theory1. All living things are made of cells = A2. Cells are the basic units of of structure and function in living organisms = B3. New cells come from preexisting cells = C 11 Remember you’re ABC’s!
    12. 12. Modern Cell Theory Modern Cell Theory contains 3 statements, in addition to the original Cell Theory: The cell contains hereditary information(DNA)  All cells are basically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities. Cellcontain specialized structures (organelles) to perform life functions
    13. 13. NotesThinking Question: How did our knowledge of cells evolve with the collaboration among scientists and new technologies? (Modern Cell Theory)
    14. 14. NOTESDraw the cells in slides 15-17 explaining what you think their function is related to its structure. Cells How does their shape relate to their/aid their function
    15. 15. Cell Shape and FunctionThe shape of the cell is relatedto the job (function) of the cell 15
    16. 16. Cell DiversityRedand WhiteBlood Cells • Muscle cells 16
    17. 17. Neurons:Nervous cells Fat Cells 17
    18. 18. NOTES Draw and label parts of a microscope.
    19. 19. Compound Light Microscope ◦ Light source ◦ View living tissue ◦ View up to 0.5 micrometers
    20. 20. How we study cells Electron Microscope (EM) ◦ View smaller than 0.5 micrometers ◦ Specimen coated in thin layer of metal ◦ Electron beam used to create image ◦ TEM (transmission) ◦ SEM (scanning) – 3D surface image
    21. 21. Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic CellsThere are 2 basic types of cells ◦ Prokaryotic ◦ EukaryoticDifferences: Presence/absence of nucleus, Presence/absence organelles Small/large size 21
    22. 22. NOTES1. List 3 ways that prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are SIMILAR and DIFFERENT. Give an example of a prokaryotic cell and an example of a eukaryotic cell.
    23. 23. Eukaryotic Cells Complex Have Nucleus Genetic material (DNA) inside the nucleus Many membranes Evolved from prokaryotic cells Example: cells of plants, animals, fungi, and protists. 23
    24. 24. Eukaryotic Cells: Animals  Many,Small vacuoles  No cell wall  No chloroplasts  Multicellular 24
    25. 25. Various Plant and Plantanimal cells Animal
    26. 26. NOTESUse the next slides to fill in the vocab chart and color the cell pictures
    27. 27. Eukaryotic OrganellesCell membrane: surrounds the outside of the cell
    28. 28. Nucleus  Control center of the cell  Contains DNA = the genetic material  DNA has the coded information to make proteins  Chromosomes are made of DNA  Nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane  The nucleolus is a small region inside the nucleus. Ribosomes are made here. 28
    29. 29. Cytoplasm•The fluid that fills the cell andholds its organelles•Contains dissolved enzymes andmolecules the cell needs to stayalive•Holds the microtubules andmyofilaments that are the cells“skeleton”
    30. 30. Mitochondria Transform the chemical energy of food (glucose) into energy the cell can use This process is called cell respiration Power plant of the cell ALL cells have mitochondria 30
    31. 31. Lysosome:Contains digestiveenzymes that helpbreak down waste
    32. 32. Endoplasmic Reticulum = ER Made of many folded membranes Place where lipids and some proteins are assembled The system of “highways” moves things around the cell 32
    33. 33. Smooth ER Smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached to it 33
    34. 34. Rough ER ER is called rough because it has ribosomes attached to it – looks bumpy, rough 34
    35. 35. Ribosomes Ribosomes are in charge of making proteins. Ribosomes join amino acids together to make proteins Ribosomes are located free in the cytoplasm OR attached to the endoplasmic reticulum 35
    36. 36. Golgi Body Golgi modifies, sorts, and packs proteins and other materials for export Golgi sorts and packs them (Post Office) 36
    37. 37.  Storematerials such as water, salts, carbohydrates Vacuoles Animalcells have many small vacuoles Plant cells have a large central vacuole filled with fluid Pressurefrom water in vacuole helps plants maintain the shape. If vacuole is not full plant wilts. 37
    38. 38. Chloroplasts Capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy (sugars) This process is called photosynthesis FOUND ONLY IN PLANT CELLS• Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll (a pigment)• Chloroplasts are like solar power plants 38
    39. 39. Cell WallProvidessupport and protection for the PLANT cellPlantcell walls are made of cellulose (carbohydrate) 39
    40. 40. Cytoskeleton-holds hold shape Flagella- Centrioles-Cilia –tiny tail-like aids inhairs that part helps reproductionhelps in in of the cellmovement movement
    41. 41. NOTES 1. How are animal and plant cells similar? How are they different?
    42. 42. Types of Eukaryotic organisms
    43. 43. NOTESFill in the chart about unicellular organisms (PROTISTS) Mobility Example drawing
    44. 44. Eukaryotic Cells: Protists  Unicellular  One cell satisfies all the needs of the organism – one cell does everything!!!  Grouped by Movement : A. Flagellum B. Cilia C. Pseudopods 44
    45. 45. Protista: Euglena Protista: ParameciumA. Move using a flagellum, one B. Move using cilia (short hair-like long whip-like structure) structures) 45
    46. 46. Protista: Amoeba C. Move using pseudopods (pseudo=false; pods= feet), projections of the cytoplasm 46
    47. 47. PROKARYOTIC CELLS: Simple (primitive) ALL BACTERIA No Nucleus(Genetic material (DNA) is lose inside the cell) No organelles with membranes The only membrane is the cell membrane Have ribosomes Have cell wall Most primitive cells: First cells on Earth Example: Bacteria(E. coli, Streptococcus) 47
    48. 48. Types of prokaryotic cellsOscillatoria Lactobacillus
    49. 49. Prokaryotic Cells: Bacteria 49