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Designing E-government Services for Collaboration Between Citizens and the Public Sector<br />T-109.4300  Network Services...
Goal of the Lecture<br />To give an introductory perspective on designing services and business models in e-government cas...
Contents<br />Background on e-government<br />Collaborative e-government services – research topics & goals<br />Case: Fil...
The FinnishE-governmentConcept<br />Source: FinnishMinistry of Justice, SADe-Report 2009<br />
Motivations<br />Finland has fallen in its e-government and i-society goals.<br />As much as 85% of e-government initiativ...
ResearchQuestions & Goals<br />“How to design and analyze digital services that encourage collaboration between citizens a...
Define some guidelines regarding collaborative e-government services, on a general level
Give input to the development and application of STOF model and method (which were used in the Thesis)</li></li></ul><li>T...
Social Media and the Public Sector?<br />How can the public sector benefit from the rise of the social networking <br />se...
CollaborativeE-government Services<br />The cases that are studied are new kind of emerging e-government services. These c...
Examplecases<br />Fillarikanavahttp://fillarikanava.hel.fi<br />”The bike channel” is a service in which the City of Helsi...
Fillarikanava<br />
Fillarikanava<br />
Ok, so what does this mean in terms of “business models”……the subject of the course, if you will.<br />T-109.4300  Network...
WhatMakesThisPossible?<br />People have higher education and more free timethan ever, <br />As well as cheap computing pow...
Produsage
Crowdsourcing
Wisdom of the crowds</li></ul>Intrinsic & extrinsic motivations for participation, <br />	think e.g., Wikipedia,social net...
Roles of users => fromconsumers to fluidroles, switchingfromconsumer to producer (cmp. Social media) => users & usercommun...
Business Model - Definition<br />“…a blueprint for a service to be delivered, describing the service definition and the in...
Business Model – Definition, cont’d<br />”EASY”<br />“…a blueprint for a service to be delivered, describing the service d...
STOF Model – No ExplanationNeeded!<br />Source: Faber & De Vos 2008<br />
STOF: Assessment of ValueCreation<br />Source: Faber & De Vos 2008<br />Q: howdoesthismodelneed to bechanged for collabora...
Summary of Changes to STOF Domains<br />Contentinteractions<br />Content<br />OpenAPI’s<br />Userprofiles<br />Digital ide...
CDI/CSF – UserValue<br />Social<br />interactions<br />is a<br />User<br />value<br />Incentives for participation<br />Se...
CDI/CSF – NetworkValue<br />Satisfactory<br />Benefits<br />Participation<br />Encourage<br />ment<br />Participation<br /...
Service<br />ContentInteraction<br />Value<br />source<br />
Technology<br />create<br />Content<br />ContentInteractions<br />Digital<br />identity<br />Personal<br />profile<br />ex...
Motivation<br />Organization<br />User<br />community<br />Social<br />capital<br />
Finance<br />Social<br />capital<br />generate<br />Is a form of<br />Value<br />sources<br />Value<br />Value<br />
Fillarikanava Revisited<br />
Fillarikanava Analysis<br />Missing/weaknesses:<br /><ul><li>Mobile context would be useful!
Open data & reusability
Sense of community (e.g., profiles) low
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Designing e-government services for collaboration between citizens and the public sector

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Designing e-government services for collaboration between citizens and the public sector

  1. 1. Designing E-government Services for Collaboration Between Citizens and the Public Sector<br />T-109.4300 Network Services Business Models, lecture8.4.2010<br />Teemu Ropponen, teemu.ropponen@tkk.fi<br />Department of Media Technology<br />
  2. 2. Goal of the Lecture<br />To give an introductory perspective on designing services and business models in e-government cases where traditional market logics of service production and consumption may not apply.<br />Present a model for analyzing such value creation, based on modifications to the STOF model. <br />To get questions, comments and improvement ideas to this model from YOU – for further research and development.<br />
  3. 3. Contents<br />Background on e-government<br />Collaborative e-government services – research topics & goals<br />Case: Fillarikanava<br />Case: KommentoiTätä<br />Possibilities and difficulties in collaborative e-government<br />Modifying STOF for modeling collaborative e-government services<br />Cases: Fillarikanava and KommentoiTätä revisited & analyzed<br />Summary<br />Suggestions for further study<br />
  4. 4. The FinnishE-governmentConcept<br />Source: FinnishMinistry of Justice, SADe-Report 2009<br />
  5. 5. Motivations<br />Finland has fallen in its e-government and i-society goals.<br />As much as 85% of e-government initiatives fail (11 billion USD per year investment).<br />Few tools exist for service innovation and analysis in e-government.<br />“Crisis of democracy“ vs. prospects of Internet technology and behaviors, push towards open, collaborative government.<br />Sources, e.g., Heeks 2001, Esteves et. al 2008, Finnish Ministry of Justice 2009, UN 2008<br />
  6. 6. ResearchQuestions & Goals<br />“How to design and analyze digital services that encourage collaboration between citizens and the public sector agencies and create value to the different parties?”<br />Goals:<br /><ul><li>Concrete suggestions to the studied cases
  7. 7. Define some guidelines regarding collaborative e-government services, on a general level
  8. 8. Give input to the development and application of STOF model and method (which were used in the Thesis)</li></li></ul><li>TowardsCollaborativeGovernment<br />Gov 2.0 refers to modernization of the way governments engage and collaborate with citizens and involves policy shifts in culture and empowermentof citizens, harnessing the opportunities of new technologies. <br />Collaboration<br />Participation<br />Transparency<br />Sources: USA Gov/White House 2009, Australian Government 2.0 Taskforce 2009, Poikola 2009 <br />
  9. 9. Social Media and the Public Sector?<br />How can the public sector benefit from the rise of the social networking <br />services (SNS) and social media?<br />Sources: Ahlqvist et al. 2008<br />
  10. 10. CollaborativeE-government Services<br />The cases that are studied are new kind of emerging e-government services. These cases the principle of engaging citizens into the processes in an open and transparent way, enabled by the use of Web 2.0 technologies and driven by people contributing their knowledge and insight without monetary compensation, sometimes referred to as participatory economics. <br />These kinds of applications could be called collaborative e-government services.<br />Source: Ropponen 2010<br />
  11. 11. Examplecases<br />Fillarikanavahttp://fillarikanava.hel.fi<br />”The bike channel” is a service in which the City of Helsinki is piloting a new kind of open and direct dialogue between citizens (bikers) and the administrative workers.<br />“Tell, discuss, and comment – and make Helsinki a better biking city”<br />KommentoiTätä - http://flexi.tml.hut.fi/kt<br />“An easy-to-use and effective web-based service (tool) for engaging document owners and their stakeholders in an open, social, constructive and deliberative commenting and discussion process”<br />Key use case piloted are commenting on public documents (i.e, e-consultation), pilots with Ministry of Justice and others.<br />
  12. 12. Fillarikanava<br />
  13. 13. Fillarikanava<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Ok, so what does this mean in terms of “business models”……the subject of the course, if you will.<br />T-109.4300 Network Services Business Models, lecuture8.4.2010<br />Teemu Ropponen, teemu.ropponen@tkk.fi<br />Department of Media Technology<br />
  18. 18. WhatMakesThisPossible?<br />People have higher education and more free timethan ever, <br />As well as cheap computing power & networking<br /><ul><li>peer production & participation phenomena, </li></ul>e.g., theories and concepts of:<br /><ul><li>Networked information society
  19. 19. Produsage
  20. 20. Crowdsourcing
  21. 21. Wisdom of the crowds</li></ul>Intrinsic & extrinsic motivations for participation, <br /> think e.g., Wikipedia,social networks & media.<br />Sources: E.g., Ahlqvist et. al 2008, Benkler 2006, Surowiecky 2004, Shirky 2008, Howe 2008, Bruns 2008<br />
  22. 22. Roles of users => fromconsumers to fluidroles, switchingfromconsumer to producer (cmp. Social media) => users & usercommunityeffectivelypart of the provider (value) network<br />However, usersdon’thavestatedstrategiesorgoals the sameway as organizations => motivationmechanisms<br />”Revenue” and ”valuecreation” in e-governmentservices – how to measureit! <br />Potentialvaluecreationoutside of the serviceitself – e.g., throughreuse of data (openAPI’s)<br />WhatMakesThisDifficult?<br />
  23. 23. Business Model - Definition<br />“…a blueprint for a service to be delivered, describing the service definition and the intended value for the target group, the sources of revenue, and providing an architecture for the service delivery, including a description of the resources, and the organizational and financial arrangements between the involved business actors…”<br />Source: Bouwman et al. 2008<br />
  24. 24. Business Model – Definition, cont’d<br />”EASY”<br />“…a blueprint for a service to be delivered, describing the service definition and the intended value for the target group, the sources of revenue, and providing an architecture for the service delivery, including a description of the resources, and the organizational and financial arrangements between the involved business actors…”<br />”COMPLEX”<br />Source: Bouwman et al. 2008<br />
  25. 25. STOF Model – No ExplanationNeeded!<br />Source: Faber & De Vos 2008<br />
  26. 26. STOF: Assessment of ValueCreation<br />Source: Faber & De Vos 2008<br />Q: howdoesthismodelneed to bechanged for collaborativee-governmentservices?<br />Q: whatcanbefound out about the studiedcases? <br />
  27. 27. Summary of Changes to STOF Domains<br />Contentinteractions<br />Content<br />OpenAPI’s<br />Userprofiles<br />Digital identity<br />Usercommunity<br />Motivations<br />Value (sources)<br />Social capital<br />Rewardmechanisms<br />
  28. 28. CDI/CSF – UserValue<br />Social<br />interactions<br />is a<br />User<br />value<br />Incentives for participation<br />Sense of<br />community<br />Sense of<br />Community<br />User<br />Activation<br />
  29. 29. CDI/CSF – NetworkValue<br />Satisfactory<br />Benefits<br />Participation<br />Encourage<br />ment<br />Participation<br />Rewards<br />Acceptable<br />User <br />Community<br />External<br />Value<br />Creation<br />Content<br />Reusability<br />
  30. 30. Service<br />ContentInteraction<br />Value<br />source<br />
  31. 31. Technology<br />create<br />Content<br />ContentInteractions<br />Digital<br />identity<br />Personal<br />profile<br />extends<br />Open<br />APIs<br />
  32. 32. Motivation<br />Organization<br />User<br />community<br />Social<br />capital<br />
  33. 33. Finance<br />Social<br />capital<br />generate<br />Is a form of<br />Value<br />sources<br />Value<br />Value<br />
  34. 34. Fillarikanava Revisited<br />
  35. 35. Fillarikanava Analysis<br />Missing/weaknesses:<br /><ul><li>Mobile context would be useful!
  36. 36. Open data & reusability
  37. 37. Sense of community (e.g., profiles) low
  38. 38. Needs more presence and feedback from civil servants
  39. 39. Integration to real processes unclear
  40. 40. Some fundamental technical features missing</li></ul>Positive/strengths:<br /><ul><li>Good usage statistics from users
  41. 41. High-quality input & discussions
  42. 42. Public administration participating (vs. FixMyStreet)
  43. 43. Strategic buy-in from public administration (Helsinki strategy)
  44. 44. Value network well in place, potential revenue models exist</li></li></ul><li>Fillarikanava ValueNetwork<br />Public servant<br />Users<br />Biker<br />Users<br />Associations<br />Other<br />Useragencies<br />Developers/<br />aggregators<br />HKR<br />Fillarikanava<br />KSV<br />Advertiser/<br />sponsor<br />HKI IT<br />TASKE<br />OpenStreet<br />map<br />
  45. 45. KommentoiTätä Revisited<br />
  46. 46. KommentoiTätäAnalysis<br />Missing/weaknesses:<br /><ul><li>Clear value proposition & target group?
  47. 47. Integration to processes?
  48. 48. Motivations for participation?
  49. 49. Competition – similar, technically better tools in the market
  50. 50. Revenue model unclear, although identifiable
  51. 51. No social elements (but may not be necessary in all cases)</li></ul>Positive/strengths:<br /><ul><li>An identified need exists in the government target group
  52. 52. Indications of improvement in process (efficiency) and quality of comments exist
  53. 53. Potential to beat competition in selected use cases </li></li></ul><li>KommentoiTätä ValueNetwork<br />Public<br />Users<br />Consulted<br />Associations<br />(NGO’s, businesses)<br />Public servant<br />Users<br />Government<br />Agencies as users<br />KommentoiTätä<br />Developers/<br />aggregators<br />Government<br />Agencies (otherroles)<br />Media<br />ValtIT and other<br />Gov IT organisation<br />OM<br />(serviceowner)<br />Infra<br />Provider<br />KommentoiTätä – a possiblevaluenetwork<br />
  54. 54. Summary: STOF in CollaborativeE-Gov<br />STOF can be (and has been) used for analyzing e-government services. For “collaborative e-government” context, modifications are needed. <br />Items not applicable as such:<br /><ul><li>Revenue, Profitability, some mobile-related items</li></ul>STOF is missing (or not emphasizing enough)<br /><ul><li>Motivations for participation
  55. 55. (User-generated) Content (vs.Data)
  56. 56. Community (vs. User/Customer)
  57. 57. Open Data and APIs (vs. Integration)
  58. 58. Value network still applicable? (vs. ecosystems)
  59. 59. Value (esp. non-monetary values) need to be thought more</li></li></ul><li>Thanks! Questions & commentsappreciated!<br />Doesthismakesense? Whatwasmissing?<br />Howwouldyouimprovethismodel, presentation, thinking, etc.? <br />Contact:<br />Teemu Ropponen<br />Teemu.Ropponen@tkk.fi<br />http://somus.vtt.fi<br />

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