Lahey Research Methods

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Lahey Research Methods

  1. 1. Psychology: An Introduction Benjamin Lahey 10 th Edition Slides by Kimberly Foreman
  2. 2. <ul><li>Chapter Two: </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methods in Psychology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Concepts of Research <ul><li>Scientific method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>making observations in a systematic way, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>following strict rules of evidence and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thinking critically about that evidence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Concepts of Research (cont.) <ul><li>Empirical evidence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence from observations of publicly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>observable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>describe the observations in terms of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>operations of measurement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Concepts of Research (cont.) <ul><li>Theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tentative explanations of observations in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- prediction based on a theory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Concepts of Research (cont.) <ul><li>Representativeness of samples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sample: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- participants must be representative of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the total group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Basic Concepts of Research (cont.) <ul><li>Importance of replication in research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- replication: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- testing a hypothesis in more than one study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- research is more sound if outcome is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>similar in more than one study </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Research Methods <ul><li>Descriptive studies: </li></ul><ul><li>- survey method </li></ul><ul><li>- naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>observation </li></ul><ul><li>- clinical method </li></ul><ul><li>- correlational </li></ul><ul><li>method </li></ul>
  9. 9. Research Methods (cont.) <ul><li>Descriptive studies (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>- correlation: </li></ul><ul><li>- statistical relations between quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- variable: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> - can be assigned a numerical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- quantitative measures: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - amount </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Research Methods (cont.) <ul><li>Descriptive studies (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>- correlation coefficient: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- measures the strength of the correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between two quantitative variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in statistical terms </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Research Methods (cont.) <ul><li>Formal experiments: </li></ul><ul><li>- allow researcher to </li></ul><ul><li>draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>about cause-and- </li></ul><ul><li>effect relationships </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research Methods (cont.) <ul><li>Elements and logic of </li></ul><ul><li>formal experiments: </li></ul><ul><li>- independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>- dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>- experimental group </li></ul><ul><li>- control group </li></ul><ul><li>- placebo control </li></ul>
  13. 13. Research Methods (cont.) <ul><li>Elements and logic of formal experiments (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>- blind formal experiments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- experimenter bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- double blind </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Research Methods (cont.) <ul><li>Describing and interpreting </li></ul><ul><li>data: </li></ul><ul><li>- descriptive statistics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> - mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - median </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - normal distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- standard deviation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ethical Principals of Research <ul><li>Ethics of research with human participants: </li></ul><ul><li> - freedom from coercion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- limited deception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- adequate debriefing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- confidentiality </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ethical Principals of Research (cont.) <ul><li>Ethics of research with nonhuman animals: </li></ul><ul><li>- necessity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- humane treatment </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Ethical Principals of Research (cont.) <ul><li>Human diversity: equal representation in </li></ul><ul><li>research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. National Institutes of Health require </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that all new research grants involving human </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>subjects study diverse samples that include </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>both sexes and members of the major racial </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and cultural groups. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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