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Halgin6e ppt ch04

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Halgin6e ppt ch04

  1. 1. Richard P. Halgin Susan Krauss Whitbourne University of Massachusetts at Amherst slides by Travis Langley Henderson State University Abnormal Psychology Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 5e Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 6e Richard P. Halgin Susan Krauss Whitbourne slides by Travis Langley Henderson State University Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Theoretical Perspectives Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 4
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Theoretical Perspective an orientation to understanding the causes of human behavior and the treatment of abnormality. The Purpose of Theoretical Perspectives in Abnormal Psychology Theoretical perspectives influence the ways in which clinicians and researchers interpret and organize their observations about behavior.
  4. 4. Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychodynamic Perspective
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Personality Structure </li></ul></ul>Id Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. In Freudian theory, the ID is the instinctive, inborn part of personality. Freud
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Personality Structure </li></ul></ul>Freud Id Ego Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. In Freudian theory, The EGO is the center of conscious awareness.
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Personality Structure </li></ul></ul>Superego Freud Id Ego Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. In Freudian theory, the SUPEREGO controls the ego’s pursuit of the id’s desires.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense Mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various tactics people use to keep unacceptable thoughts, instincts, and feelings out of conscious awareness. </li></ul></ul></ul>Psychoanalytic Freud Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  9. 9. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>High Adaptive Defenses: </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy responses to stressful situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assertion </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  10. 10. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Tactics people use to protect themselves from anxiety by keeping unacceptable thoughts, instincts, and feelings out of conscious awareness. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>High defense mechanisms (e.g., humor) </li></ul><ul><li>Mental inhibitions (e.g., displacement) </li></ul><ul><li>Disavowal (e.g., denial) </li></ul><ul><li>Image distortions (e.g., splitting) </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  11. 11. Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Oral </li></ul><ul><li>Anal </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul><ul><li>Genital </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychosexual Stages
  12. 12. Post-Freudians and Criticism <ul><li>Carl Jung (1875-1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler (1870-1937) </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Horney (1885-1952) </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson (1902-1994) </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  13. 13. Post-Freudians and Criticism <ul><li>Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalent (preoccupied) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidant (includes fearful and dismissive) </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Infant Attachment Style (Ainsworth)
  14. 14. Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>Person-Centered Theory (Rogers) </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  15. 15. Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>Person-Centered Theory (Rogers) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization Theory (Maslow) </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  16. 16. Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>Person-Centered Theory (Rogers) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization Theory (Maslow) </li></ul><ul><li>Client-Centered Therapy </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  17. 17. Sociocultural Perspective <ul><li>Theorists within the sociocultural perspective emphasize the ways that individuals are influenced by people, social institutions, and social forces. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  18. 18. Family Perspective <ul><li>Intergenerational approach </li></ul><ul><li>Structural approach </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential approach </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 4 major approaches: Proponents of the family perspective see abnormality as caused by disturbances in family interactions and relationships.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Social discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Social influences & historical events </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicultural approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milieu therapy </li></ul></ul>Sociocultural Perspective Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  20. 20. Behavioral Perspective <ul><li>Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus Generalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus Discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aversive Conditioning </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  21. 21. Behavioral Perspective Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Operant Conditioning (Skinner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary reinforcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary reinforcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive vs. negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction (occurs with classical or operant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Behavioral Perspective Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning (Skinner) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning and Cognition </li></ul>
  23. 23. Behavioral Perspective Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning (Skinner) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning & Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterconditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic Desensitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Token Economy </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Cognitively Based Theory <ul><li>Treatment focuses on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional attitudes </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  25. 25. Biological Perspective Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Within the biological perspective , disturbances in emotions, behavior, and cognitive processes are viewed as being caused by abnormalities in the functioning of the body.
  26. 26. Neurotransmitter <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><li>GABA </li></ul><ul><li>serotonin </li></ul><ul><li>dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>enkephalins </li></ul><ul><li>a chemical substance released from a transmitting neuron (nerve cell) across a synapse to be absorbed by a receiving neuron </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  27. 27. Genetic Influences <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>(DNA): </li></ul><ul><li>23 sets of paired strands </li></ul><ul><li>spiral into double helix </li></ul><ul><li>contain information cells need to manufacture protein </li></ul><ul><li>organized into chromosomes </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  28. 28. Treatment: Somatic Therapies Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Psychosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) </li></ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul>
  29. 29. Biopsychosocial Perspectives: An Integrative Approach <ul><li>Ways in which clinicians integrate various models include </li></ul><ul><li>technical eclecticism </li></ul><ul><li>theoretical integration </li></ul><ul><li>c ommon factors approach </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  30. 30. <ul><li>For more information on material covered in this chapter, visit our Web site: </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. http:/ www.mhhe.com/halgin6e

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