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Halgin6e ppt ch03

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Halgin6e ppt ch03

  1. 1. Richard P. Halgin Susan Krauss Whitbourne University of Massachusetts at Amherst slides by Travis Langley Henderson State University Abnormal Psychology Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 5e Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 6e Richard P. Halgin Susan Krauss Whitbourne slides by Travis Langley Henderson State University Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Assessment Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 3
  3. 3. What Is Psychological Assessment? <ul><li>Assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>A procedure in which a clinician evaluates a person in terms of the psychological, physical, and social factors that influence the individual's functioning. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  4. 4. Interview Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Information sought through interviews: </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for being in treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Health status </li></ul><ul><li>Family background </li></ul><ul><li>Life history </li></ul>The unstructured interview involves a series of open-ended questions. The structured interview consists of a standardized series of questions with predetermined wording and order.
  5. 5. Mental Status Examination <ul><li>Appearance and Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Content of Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Style and Language </li></ul><ul><li>Affect and Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of Self </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Insight and Judgment </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. To assess:
  6. 6. Mental Status Examination Appearance and Behavior <ul><li>Examples of Abnormal Motor Behavior: </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor Agitation </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Catatonia </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsion </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mental Status Examination Content of Thought <ul><li>Content of Thought: </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas that fill a person’s head. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Obsessions </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul><ul><li>Overvalued Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Magical Thinking </li></ul>Examples of Abnormalities:
  8. 8. Mental Status Examination Affect and Mood <ul><li>Affect: </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s outward expression of emotion. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Blunted or Flat </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated, Heightened, Overdramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted Range </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mental Status Examination Affect and Mood <ul><li>Mood: </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s personal experience of emotion. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Euthymic = Neither happy nor sad Dysphoric = Unpleasant feelings Euphoric = Cheerful, elated, possibly even ecstatic
  10. 10. Mental Status Examination Perceptual Experiences <ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic </li></ul><ul><li>Gustatory </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Hallucination: False perceptions not corresponding to the objective stimuli present in the environment.
  11. 11. Mental Status Examination Orientation <ul><li>Orientation is a person’s awareness of: </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Symptoms involving vocabulary use and style: </li></ul>Mental Status Examination Thinking Style & Language Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. illogical thinking incoherence loosening of associations neologisms blocking circumstantiality tangentiality clanging confabulation echolalia flight of ideas pressure of speech perseveration
  13. 13. <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational impairment can make even ordinary life tasks seem insurmountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of Self </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbances of the individual’s sense of “who I am” include: </li></ul><ul><li>depersonalization </li></ul><ul><li>identity confusion </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Mental Status Examination
  14. 14. Mental Status Examination Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cognitive Functioning: Level of intelligence evidenced by details such as memory and abstract ability. Problems might include memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s. Insight and Judgment: Understanding and decision making.
  15. 15. Psychological Testing <ul><li>What Makes a Good Psychological Test ? </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul>
  16. 16. Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Intelligence Quotient: </li></ul><ul><li>A method of quantifying performance on an intelligence test. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally: </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. I.Q. = Mental Age Chronological Age
  17. 17. Intelligence Testing <ul><li>First intelligence test by Binet. </li></ul><ul><li>Revised as the Stanford-Binet. </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler scales now more widely used. </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler introduced deviation IQ to replace mental/chronological age ratio. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. I.Q. = Mental Age Chronological Age X 100
  18. 18. Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Deviation IQ: </li></ul><ul><li>An index of intelligence derived by comparing the individual's score on an intelligence test with the mean score for that individual's reference group. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Developed by Wechsler. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually adopted as widespread standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated into the Stanford-Binet. </li></ul>I.Q.
  19. 19. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The distribution of IQ scores across the population fits a normal curve.
  20. 20. Personality and Diagnostic Testing <ul><li>MMPI and MMPI-2 </li></ul><ul><li>NEO Personality Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>MCMI-III </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Self-Report Clinical Inventories contain standardized questions with fixed response categories that the test-taker completes, “self-reporting” the extent to which the responses characterize him or her.
  21. 21. MMPI-2: Clinical & Validity Scales <ul><li>hypochondriasis </li></ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul><ul><li>hysteria </li></ul><ul><li>psychopathic deviate </li></ul><ul><li>masculinity-femininity </li></ul><ul><li>paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>psychasthenia </li></ul><ul><li>schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>hypomania </li></ul><ul><li>social introversion </li></ul><ul><li>lie scale </li></ul><ul><li>correction </li></ul><ul><li>infrequency </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  22. 22. Personality and Diagnostic Testing <ul><li>Projective Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Rorschach </li></ul><ul><li>TAT </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  23. 23. Behavioral Assessment <ul><li>Behavioral Assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>A form of measurement based on objective recording of the individual's behavior. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  24. 24. Behavioral Assessment <ul><li>Behavioral Interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Checklists and Inventories </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Behavioral Self-Reports
  25. 25. Behavioral Assessment <ul><li>Behavioral Observation </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Reactivity: Change in a person's behavior in response to knowledge that he or she is being observed. <ul><li>In Vivo Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations include reactivity. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>In Vivo Observation = Observation “in life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Analog observation </li></ul><ul><li>= A form of behavioral assessment that takes place in a setting or context specifically designed for observing the target behavior. </li></ul>Behavioral Assessment Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  27. 27. Environmental Assessment <ul><li>Environmental Assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>A form of measurement examining the environment in which in the individual lives. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  28. 28. Physiological Assessment <ul><li>Many psychological disorders occur in the presence of physiological disturbances. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Disturbances may be: </li></ul><ul><li>localized in brain, perhaps as structural abnormality or </li></ul><ul><li>physical disorders (e.g., diabetes, AIDS) that may alter psychological functioning. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Physiological Assessment <ul><li>Psychophysiological Techniques </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Physiological Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Imaging: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EEG, CT, MRI, PET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ECG, BP, EMG </li></ul>
  30. 30. Psychophysiological Assessment Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Many clinicians and researchers assess changes in the body associated with psychological or emotional experiences, especially in: <ul><li>cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>muscles </li></ul><ul><li>skin </li></ul><ul><li>brain </li></ul>
  31. 31. Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Neuropsychological assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>A process of gathering information about a client's brain functioning on the basis of performance on psychological tests. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  32. 32. <ul><li>For more information on material covered in this chapter, visit our Web site: </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. http:/ www.mhhe.com/halgin6e

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