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Halgin6e ppt ch02

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Halgin6e ppt ch02

  1. 1. Richard P. Halgin Susan Krauss Whitbourne University of Massachusetts at Amherst slides by Travis Langley Henderson State University Abnormal Psychology Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 5e Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 6e Richard P. Halgin Susan Krauss Whitbourne slides by Travis Langley Henderson State University Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Classification and Treatment Plans </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 Chapter
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Client: </li></ul><ul><li>The person seeking psychological services. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Psychological Disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 5 people during 2007 </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Clinical Psychologists (PhD or PsyD) The Clinician: Mental health professional. There are many types taking many approaches. Psychiatrists (MD) An important distinction between psychiatrists and psychologists is that psychiatrists are licensed to administer medical treatment and prescribe medications, and psychologists are not.
  5. 5. The DSM-IV <ul><li>The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. published by the American Psychiatric Association The DSM-IV (the fourth edition) or DSM-IV-TR (fourth edition, text revision) contains descriptions of all psychological disorders, alternatively referred to as mental disorders.
  6. 6. The DSM-IV <ul><li>The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Concerns in Developing the DSM-IV: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Context </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The DSM-IV <ul><li>The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>DSM (a.k.a. DSM-I) </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-II (based on ICD) </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-III </li></ul><ul><li> (more quantitative, objective) </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-III-R </li></ul>
  8. 8. The DSM-IV <ul><li>The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>DSM (a.k.a. DSM-I) </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-II (based on ICD) </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-III </li></ul><ul><li> (more quantitative, objective) </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-III-R </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-IV </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-IV-TR </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mental Disorder <ul><li>Clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Distress or disability </li></ul><ul><li>Significant risk </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. <ul><li>Not accepted, culturally sanctioned response to a particular event </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Classification system based on medical model </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive rather than explanatory </li></ul><ul><li>Atheoretical orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical approach </li></ul><ul><li>Multiaxial system </li></ul>Assumptions of the DSM-IV Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  11. 11. Neurosis <ul><li>Term referring to behavior that involves distressing, unacceptable symptoms that are enduring and lack any physical basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a modern diagnostic term. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  12. 12. Psychosis <ul><li>Term referring to various forms of behavior involving a loss of contact with reality, such as delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (false perceptions). </li></ul><ul><li>Although not a formal diagnostic category, psychotic is retained in the DSM-IV-TR as a descriptive term. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  13. 13. The Five Axes of the DSM-IV <ul><li>Axis I: Clinical Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Axis III: General Medical Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>(helps assess prognosis) </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  14. 14. The Diagnostic Process <ul><li>The Client’s Reported and Observable Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Criteria and Differential Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Final Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Case Formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Formulation </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. decision tree: A series of simple yes/no questions in the DSM-IV-TR about a client’s symptoms that lead to a possible diagnosis. differential diagnosis: Ruling out all possible alternative diagnoses.
  16. 16. Cultural Formulation <ul><li>culture-bound syndromes: </li></ul><ul><li>particular patterns of behavior in certain cultures, perhaps reflecting cultural themes that date back for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “Ghost sickness” is a preoccupation with death and the deceased that is reported by members of Native American tribes. </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Establish Treatment Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-Term Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Goals </li></ul></ul>Planning Treatment Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  18. 18. Planning Treatment <ul><li>Determine Treatment Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychiatric Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outpatient Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halfway Houses and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day Treatment Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance Counselors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Assistance Program </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  19. 19. Treatment Modality <ul><li>Individual Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Family Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Group Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Milieu Therapy </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  20. 20. Evidence-based practice <ul><li>Clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research evidence and clinical expertise in the context of the client’s . . . </li></ul><ul><li>cultural background </li></ul><ul><li>preferences </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  21. 21. Treatment Implementation <ul><li>The Course of Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Clinician’s Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Client’s Role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Outcome of Treatment </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  22. 22. <ul><li>For more information on material covered in this chapter, visit our Web site: </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. http:/ www.mhhe.com/halgin6e

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