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Chapter 1 powerpoint


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Chapter 1 powerpoint

  1. 1. Chapter 1 What is Stress?
  2. 2. Overview <ul><ul><li>Examines the etiology of the author’s new way of defining stress by tracing its roots in four common ways of defining stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes how the author’s new definition of stress integrates these four common views of stress </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><ul><li>Many researchers and theorists have contributed to defining what stress is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early physiological research pioneers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological stress researchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The holistic health/wellness movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new definition of stress </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Stress Is Universal But Different for Different People <ul><li>Everyone experiences stress </li></ul><ul><li>To be alive is to be stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Stress means different things to different people </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Is Stress? <ul><li>Four common ways of defining stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress as response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress as stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress as a transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress as a holistic health phenomenon </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Stress as Response <ul><li>The early pioneers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claude Bernard ( milieu interieur ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walter Cannon (homeostasis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hans Selye (General Adaptation Syndrome—GAS) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Stress as Stimulus <ul><li>Psychological stress researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Holmes and Rahe (life events approach) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stress as a Transaction <ul><li>Other psychological stress researchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simeons (symbolic threats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lazarus (threat appraisal model) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A person perceives a stimulus as threatening </li></ul><ul><li>This transforms it into a stressor, triggering the stress response </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stress as a Holistic Health Phenomenon <ul><li>Stress can be better understood in the context of one’s functioning level across six dimensions of wellness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental/Occupational </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul>
  10. 10. Author’s Definition of Stress <ul><li>Stress is a holistic transaction between an individual and a potential stressor resulting in a stress response </li></ul>
  11. 11. To Understand This Explanation of Stress . . . <ul><li>Potential stressors only become actual stressors when they are perceived as being beyond one’s ability to cope with </li></ul><ul><li>Determined as a result of a transaction between the individual, the potential stressor, and the environment in which the transaction occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic transaction because it is influenced by the person’s overall well-being level </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chapter 1: What Is Stress? <ul><li>Summary </li></ul>