Principles of   Editing
Creating meaning through collage,tempo and timing
Joining ImagesEditing forms a collage, an assortment of images            joined together to create meaning             Th...
Tempo   Shot Length – the most obvious way editors    create Tempo is by controlling the length of                        ...
Cont…..• Studies have suggested that shots are gaining  pace compared to The Golden age of Hollywood• The average shot len...
Problems• It takes the average person 3 seconds to  adjust to a shot change. Brandt has argued“…..if the audience takes 3 ...
Shot transitions• The second way editors adjust the tempo is shot  transitions• Common shot transitions:            Cut fr...
Cont….• These shot transitions convey a passage of  time, but they also affect the pacing of a scene• Cuts quicken the pac...
Fades• Fades effect the pace of the film as they  literally pause the action.• They rarely occur in films but when they do...
Timing of a shot• The third editing technique is timing of shots• Cut away to emphasis a persons reaction or  response for...
Hitchcocks ‘Notorious’ 1946              http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPd5uSRDrZk• Attribute to editing               • ...
Story- centeredEditing and theconstruction of   meaning
Editing and timing•   Narrative sequencing•   Telling the story as it happens in Linear editing•   This is the most common...
Condensing / expanding time• Collages condense time• Spiderman uses ‘condensed editing’ when  thinking of a costume – spee...
Arranging the order of events• Media Res• Events taking place in the present are interrupted by  images that have taken pl...
Time and Space          Editing draws the viewers attention to the detail• Close up (example of the very first ‘close up’ ...
Shot reverse shot• Conversation between two people• One speaks to the other listening• Rule of thumb is: the actors will n...
Eye line matchThe match cut uses the characters line of sight• Powerful storytelling devise as it This draws  the viewers ...
Creating meaning outside the story• Continuity• 180 degree rule• Soviet Montage (political meaning)
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Principles of editing

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Principles of editing

  1. 1. Principles of Editing
  2. 2. Creating meaning through collage,tempo and timing
  3. 3. Joining ImagesEditing forms a collage, an assortment of images joined together to create meaning The master of collage is Hitchcock http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bieIiX5KLQ
  4. 4. Tempo Shot Length – the most obvious way editors create Tempo is by controlling the length of shot• Long shots slow down the pace of a scene while short takes quicken the pace and intensity (For example, long shots for romantic scenes, quick shots for action)
  5. 5. Cont…..• Studies have suggested that shots are gaining pace compared to The Golden age of Hollywood• The average shot length was 5.15 seconds it is now 4.75 seconds• The change of length can be seen when you compare Casablanca to the remake of Sherlock Holmes• This is due to the fact that films are now electronically cut
  6. 6. Problems• It takes the average person 3 seconds to adjust to a shot change. Brandt has argued“…..if the audience takes 3 seconds to adjust to a new scene, what happens when the average shot length is so short that the audience is never given a chance to catch up”• The tendency to rely on such rapid editing in recent films may explain why younger audience are not receptive to older films; they seem slow paced
  7. 7. Shot transitions• The second way editors adjust the tempo is shot transitions• Common shot transitions: Cut from A to B – Pulp Fiction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qauBQkgJsc4 Fade in/fade out – Hugo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hR-kP-olcpM Dissolve (overlapping) – Red River http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00bbRbEN0sg &feature=related
  8. 8. Cont….• These shot transitions convey a passage of time, but they also affect the pacing of a scene• Cuts quicken the pace of the action and connote instant change.• Even a scene with long takes, a cut often suggests sudden change in mood or character dynamic
  9. 9. Fades• Fades effect the pace of the film as they literally pause the action.• They rarely occur in films but when they do it is to introduce memory or fantasy
  10. 10. Timing of a shot• The third editing technique is timing of shots• Cut away to emphasis a persons reaction or response for example• Cut away to a newspaper on the table when presented in narrative• Cutting from a two shot to a close up for reaction or a close up to a long shot for landscape effect
  11. 11. Hitchcocks ‘Notorious’ 1946 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPd5uSRDrZk• Attribute to editing • Techniques used in• Collage Notorious • Medium shot (romantic intimacy) vs. Close up (disappointment) • The cut abruptly changes the• Tempo pace of the conversation; As Alicia and Delvins words become more heated, the scene relies on shorter takes • Cut to close up of Alicia• Timing coincides with Delvins line “I bet you’ve heard that line enough’
  12. 12. Story- centeredEditing and theconstruction of meaning
  13. 13. Editing and timing• Narrative sequencing• Telling the story as it happens in Linear editing• This is the most common• ‘Medias res’ is the term used when narrative is jumbled up (Fight Club for example)
  14. 14. Condensing / expanding time• Collages condense time• Spiderman uses ‘condensed editing’ when thinking of a costume – speeds up hours, days or years in the characters lives• Expanding – overlapping shots of a single action example: Someone pressing a door bell shot from 3 angles and shown after each other to portray time but also nerves in the person pressing it
  15. 15. Arranging the order of events• Media Res• Events taking place in the present are interrupted by images that have taken place in the past.• Flashbacks• Rare occasions there are flash-forwards• By their nature ‘flash forwards’ can be confusing as they can only be understood once the event has occurred on scene. Easy Rider – Captain America is interrupted as he talks by a shot of burning debris on the side of the road. Only later will viewers realise that the debris is from CA motorcycle crash at the end of the film
  16. 16. Time and Space Editing draws the viewers attention to the detail• Close up (example of the very first ‘close up’ used in film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2X_BZpnWFc• EstablishingExample: Return of the kingEditing traces the lightening of Pyres across a mountain range in a majestic call of arms.This drawers the viewers attention to a number of things; be it the emotional tenor of a conversation, the object of a characters gaze, important detail in the mise en scene and the group dynamics of a scene
  17. 17. Shot reverse shot• Conversation between two people• One speaks to the other listening• Rule of thumb is: the actors will never speak directly to the viewer as this destroys the illusion of a naturally unfolding story• Cameras are normally slightly angles to the side rather than using point of view shots
  18. 18. Eye line matchThe match cut uses the characters line of sight• Powerful storytelling devise as it This draws the viewers into a characters thought process and emotional stateCutaways• Unlike eye line match a cut away is not character centered, the on screen appearance of an object does not depend on the character having to ‘see it’ in the previous shot
  19. 19. Creating meaning outside the story• Continuity• 180 degree rule• Soviet Montage (political meaning)

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