Hop final-april-trolina

507 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Hop final-april-trolina

  1. 1. Empowering people with physicaldisabilities through the use of cloudcomputing so they could be broughtback in the “normal world”.Thierry RolinaMKT624 Winter 2011Page 1 of 17
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 3ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................. 3 Overview................................................................................................................................................ 3 Current Interaction between the disabled and their environment ........................... 5 Value creation ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Current state of Co-creation in the existing value chain ..................................................... 7 Co-creation between the disabled and the government ................................................ 7 Co-creation between the disabled and the communities .............................................. 9 Conclusion and proposed way forward .................................................................................... 9ENGAGEMENT PLATFORM OPPORTUNITIES .......................................................................... 10 Engagement between the government and the communities ....................................... 11 Current DAT ................................................................................................................................. 11 Proposed DAT .............................................................................................................................. 11 Engagement between the government and the disabled ................................................ 11 Current DAT ................................................................................................................................. 11 Proposed DAT .............................................................................................................................. 12 Engagement between the communities and the disabled .............................................. 12 Proposed DAT .............................................................................................................................. 12 Design of platforms ........................................................................................................................ 12 Capabilities required ......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Challenges -> human for most of them ....................... Error! Bookmark not defined.Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................. 13References .............................................................................................................................................. 13 (1) 2006 American Community Survey Content Test report .................................... 14 (2) The elephant in the waiting-room ................................................................................ 15 (3) HealthDay News .................................................................................................................. 17 (4) Creating Public Value through Private/Public Partnerships................................ 17Page 2 of 17
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONThis paper aims at applying some of the co-creation concepts studied in MKT624 inthe public and social sectors to explore how people with physical disabilities can beempowered and brought back in the normal life.The first section provides some background data and highlights the current status ofco-creation.The second section offers possible enhancements to the current situation.ENVIRONMENT ANALYSISOverviewCensus data provides meaningful insight into what disability really is. Disability wasfirst used in the 1880 census, and was used until 1910. At that time, disability had acompletely different connotation and was rather related to primary healthconditions such as sensory conditions, health conditions, deformities… Disabilitythen disappeared until 1970 when it re-surfaced in the census with a focus on itseconomic impact and more specifically limitations to working at a job.Based on this data, Congress passed the rehabilitation act of 1973.Below are some excerpts of the Rehabilitation act of 1973:Congress finds that--(1) millions of Americans have one or more physical or mental disabilities and the number of Americanswith such disabilities is increasing;(2) individuals with disabilities constitute one of the most disadvantaged groups in society;(3) disability is a natural part of the human experience and in no way diminishes the right of individuals to--(A) live independently;(B) enjoy self-determination;(C) make choices;(D) contribute to society;(E) pursue meaningful careers; and(F) enjoy full inclusion and integration in the economic, political, social, cultural, and educationalmainstream of American society;Page 3 of 17
  4. 4. (4) increased employment of individuals with disabilities can be achieved through implementation ofstatewide workforce investment systems under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 that providemeaningful and effective participation for individuals with disabilities in workforce investment activitiesand activities carried out under the vocational rehabilitation program established under title I, and throughthe provision of independent living services, support services, and meaningful opportunities foremployment in integrated work settings through the provision of reasonable accommodations;(5) individuals with disabilities continually encounter various forms of discrimination in such critical areasas employment, housing, public accommodations, education, transportation, communication, recreation,institutionalization, health services, voting, and public services; and(6) the goals of the Nation properly include the goal of providing individuals with disabilities with the toolsnecessary to--(A) make informed choices and decisions; and(B) achieve equality of opportunity, full inclusion and integration in society, employment, independentliving, and economic and social self-sufficiency, for such individuals.A recent report covering disability (1) (US census bureau) identifies four basic areasof functioning that identified the largest component of population of people withdisabilities: vision, hearing, mobility, and cognitive functioning. According to the2006 ACS survey, 15.1% of the population - about 41.3 million people - age 5 andabove reported a disability. Of the population 16 years and over, 5.5% reported a gooutside disability (mobility), and those 16 to 64 years old 7.1% reported anemployment disability. Disability prevalence was highest among the 65 years andolder population at 41% compared to rate for the 16 to 64 years age group (12.3%),and 5 to 15 years age group (6.3%).In summary, disability has societal and economic impacts and these impacts areprone to worsen as people live older. It is urgent for the communities and thegovernment to act and try to mitigate these impacts by bringing the disabled backinto the “normal life”.Page 4 of 17
  5. 5. Current Interaction between the disabled and their environmentOur baseline value chain consists of the following entities: - The governments – comprising federal, and state - The communities – comprising the cities, the working and living communities - The NGOs - The disabled themselvesThe federal government is the legislating body. The federal government, through thesocial security administration, provides assistance to people with disabilities viadisability insurance (DI) and supplemental income (SSI). According to theEconomist (2), DI accounted for around 18% of social security spending in 2009, upfrom 10% in 1989. Still according to the Economist, the rules defined by the federalgovernment for DI eligibility are ill defined.Disabled interact with communities when they work, live, consume…MIUSA.org references around 100 NGOs in the United States. These NGO, are usuallyvery focused, either geographically or around types of disability. Their goals varyfrom the promotion of interests of the disabled to the improvement of their life.In summary, there are numerous entities all along the value chain that have thepotential to interact independently with the disabled. There is little communicationbetween these entities if communication is not needed.In the case of communities communication with government is reduced tocompliance.All of this creates a climate in which the governments legislate, with the risk ofproducing laws that areill effective and expensive.Value creationUnlike in the private sector there is no notion of shareholder value in the public andsocial sectors. The notion of value is subjective and commensurate to the level ofservice provided. In “creating public value through Private/Public Partnerships”,Mark H. Moore (4) asserts that value may not be the maximum welfare for themaximum number of individuals but rather what we can collectively agree wePage 5 of 17
  6. 6. would like to achieve using the powers of the state. This ultimately requires newmodels that can be inclusive for all stakeholders.We can safely say that value is created for the disabled as soon as their conditioncan be improved. In the case of physically disabled, that would mean improvedmobility and interaction with the outside world.The equation is a little more difficult to describe when it comes to communities. Forinstance, compliance to the fair housing act can be first perceived as a cost tosociety. On the other hand, the first to comply will build an image of “fair player”,which will ultimately bring respect and value. There is also the opportunity tobroaden the market by opening the services to a new segment of customers.Value creation for the disabledValue is created through solutions to needs of the disabled.Numerous technologies today have the ability to bring value to the disabled byproviding some of the functions that they have lost. For instance,a person withreduced mobility may enjoy his/her freedom again by using an electric wheel chair.Another example comes to mind with earing aids, which have become very commontoday.Social groups are working closely with the disabled; they range from special interestgroups such as sports to general-purpose activities such as the best place to live.TheGuidestar database references 801 NGOs in the United States dedicated to thephysically disabled. More than half of these associations have less than $1M inincome and $1M in assets.Facebook has a section dedicated to disabled.Value created for the governmentThe social security insurance pays benefits to the insured disabled, which could bean open door to a blank check if no close monitoring process is in place. This is thecase for mental illness and back pain – a subset of musculoskeletal disorder – whichrepresented respectively 22% and 31% of DI awards in 2009. The opportunity tobetter legislate would translate into a cost saving opportunity for the social securityadministration.Another example is obesity - a subset of mobility disability –which is estimated tocost $270 (3) billion per year of which $120 billion are in excess medical care.Closed-loop monitoring of the condition (active diagnosis and suggestion ofprocedures) would also translate directly into cost savings.Value created for the communitiesFirst, economic value is created as communities have access to a larger pool ofconsumers. Disabled individuals and their families have a discretionary spendingpower that tops $200 Billion annually. The challenge here will be to have the abilityto answer the special needs of the disabled. For instance, physically disabled oftenneed special housing.Page 6 of 17
  7. 7. Second, greater awareness is required to make communities disabled-aware andhelp elected official understand that people with disabilities are not burden orcharity cases but contributing members.Current state of Co-creation in the existing value chainIn this section, we will look at the various co-creation initiatives that have beentaken by the stakeholder along the value chain.Co-creation between the disabled and the governmentThe government has launched numerous initiatives to build awareness on disability.disability.govDisability.gov is an award-winning federal government website that provides aninteractive, community-driven information network of disability-related programs,services, laws and benefits. Through the site, Americans with disabilities, theirfamilies, Veterans, educators, employers and many others are connected tothousands of resources from federal, state and local government agencies,educational institutions and non-profit organizations.Since July 2009, Disability.gov has implemented both social media andpersonalization tools, offering an enhanced experience for all visitors. Among thenew features is the ability to register for a My Disability.gov profile, which allowsusers to vote and comment on resources participate in group forums and viewadditional resources that are recommended based on their actions on the site.Visitors can also follow daily tweets on Disability.gov’s Twitter account, connectwith other fans on Facebook and LinkedIn or read weekly guest blogs from expertson disability issues on Disability.Blog.Page 7 of 17
  8. 8. Yet, despite this effort, a brick wall exists between the disabled and public sector.Statistically, seventy percent of all SSD (a.k.a. SSDI) and SSI claims are denied atapplication. This practically means for SSD and SSDI applicants that they need toseek help either from NGOs or from a disability attorney if the want to increase theirodds of having their application accepted.I can campaignThis campaign airs on YouTube athttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BG_W7wAe1kw&feature=player_embeddedThe Campaign for Disability Employment is a collaborative effort to promotepositive employment outcomes for people with disabilities by encouragingemployers and others to recognize the value and talent they bring to the workplace.Page 8 of 17
  9. 9. The video had only 34,370 hits since its launch on September 2009.Co-creation between the disabled and the communitiesThese efforts are mainly driven by non-profit organizationsNon profit organizationsSince 1991, project Genesis has been providing assistance to disabled inConnecticut. The organization acts as a seeker-solver portal and provides jobdevelopment, job assistance and job coaching services through funding from thebureau of rehabilitation. Project Genesis has a network of employers in everyindustry and at every level of employment. Hiring employers get a federal tax creditup to $2400 per employee.CommunitiesMost large cities have a Mayor’s office for people with disabilities. The officepromotes participation and equal opportunity for people with disabilities.Conclusion and proposed way forwardInsofar, our research shows an intent at co-creation from the federal governmentthrough disability.gov but the site lacks on the three dimensions of accessibility,dialog, and transparency.On the dimension of accessibility, the government must address the concern raisedbywww.pewinternet.org. In essence, even though the disabled seem to be moreattached to technology in their home, computers are the exception. 56% of thedisabled have or use a computer compared to 72% of all Americans.Regarding dialog, people with disabilities perceive the use of Internet to beconfusing and hard to use (21% of the disabled v. 9% of the non-disabled).Finally, there is little –to no transparency to information in disability.gov.Page 9 of 17
  10. 10. I have not found any similar initiative that links the communities to the disabled.This is an area where non-profit organizations are active. From what I could see,there seems to be a “do not care” attitude about the disabled from the communities;the small amount of hits for the “I can“ campaign warrant this.What we will explore next are ways to improve the government and thecommunities understanding of the disabled needs so proper dialog and true co-creation with the disabled can be started. But before co-creating between the blueand the yellow, we will first pay close attention at co-creating within the blue world.ENGAGEMENT PLATFORM OPPORTUNITIESAs previously stated, disability.gov can be tuned to become a co-creation platform.The first motivation is that the disabled get medical coverage through Medicaid andMedicare, so the platform could be used to enroll on line, check benefits, and accessservices that would potentially bring the disabled into the stream of normal life. Itwill be key to enroll all the stakeholders into the design of the platform, particularlyNGOs and city government, as they represent the closest link to the disabled.Page 10 of 17
  11. 11. Engagement between the government and the communitiesCurrent DATDialog - Low The dialog between the government and the communities is administered through the Mayor’s office for people with disabilities in large communities.Accessibility - low Only a handful of large cities have a web portal: NYC, Chicago and Houston. In other metropolis, there is no such facility.Transparency – low Whenever it exists, the site provides little transparency into the various government initiatives.Proposed DATThere is a tremendous opportunity to build awareness for the disabled needs in thecommunities regardless of their size. As stated previously, there is a need to makethe communities disabled-aware and help elected officials understand that disabledare not a burden but rather represent an economic and social potential.Dialog and AccessibilityDialog between government and communities should be enhanced by NGOs and/orcharities through regular dialog with the communities. Several forums can be usedand among others: meetings, local radio talks come to mind.TransparencyIncreased transparency can be provided to communities by explaining theeconomical and social benefit of transparently caring for disabledEngagement between the government and the disabledCurrent DATDialog - Low The current platform is used as a one-way channel from blue to yellow although blog posting is available. There is no way for the disabled to post what their expectations and aspirations are.Accessibility - high The website is always available, although there is apparently reluctance from this users group to use the Internet.Page 11 of 17
  12. 12. Transparency – medium The site provides some level transparency into the various government initiatives.Proposed DATDialogFirst dialog should be initiated by the charities and the various NGOs working in thefield. They know most the needs of the disabled hence they will be able to overcometheir resistance to adopt and embrace the new engagement platform.AccessibilityDisability.gov should be re-designed to be more user-friendly. A new voice-controlfront end would be a plus so arm- and hand- disabled can also use the platform.TransparencyWe propose to extend disability.gov to include a secured access so disabled can login, and check their status, fill forms…We propose to add a blogging section for the communication with the governmentagency. For example, a physically disabled person may be interested to go back towork, but he/she is encountering difficulties. A section dedicated to difficulties maybe appropriate too.Engagement between the communities and the disabledThis is an area where NGOs and charities are very active and by no means do wewant to replace them.Proposed DATWe propose to extend disability.gov to extend its reach to the local community.Disability.gov should provide a job portal available so the disabled can log theirresumes, capabilities, skills… for those who wish to return to work. A similarcapability should also be offered to employers.Design of platformThe extensions proposed will require a re-design of disability.gov particularly in theareas of: - Providing a secured access - Providing voice control access to the site - Re-designing the site front end so it is user friendly and easy accessible to non-computer literate people - Providing blogging capability and semantic analysis– a key component to analyze trends in needsPage 12 of 17
  13. 13. In addition, NGOs and charities will have to work closely with the government, asthese organizations understand the needs of the disabled. Getting the new platformadopted by both the communities and the disabled will decide of its success.I view the new platform potentially evolving into a nodal component, which couldattract new businesses and ventures in the future.ConclusionFor the first stage of the co-creation engagement, using cloud computing does notseem to be a necessary component. It will be key to first engage the communitiesthrough NGOs and charities and bring awareness that there is value for everybodyin bringing back the physically disabled in the normal world.I would recommend pilotingthe engagement at a local level in a mi-size city that hasa diversified industrial landscape.Page 13 of 17
  14. 14. References(1) 2006 American Community Survey Content Test reportAfter reviewing the results of the 1996 NCS in terms of reliability and validity andpresenting the information to a group of experts, including the Interagency Subcommitteeon Disability Statistics, the Census Bureau found that still more questions remained andthe choice was not clear. Hence, another federal interagency work group was convened inJune 1997 by the Office of Management and Budget and charged with the developmentof a short set of disability questions. The interagency work group faced three tasks in ashort period of time: (1) measuring disability using a definition in keeping with the ADA,(2) meeting the needs of various agencies requiring specific information, and (3) having amaximum of six questions. The work group agreed that three domains (sensory, physical,and mental/emotional/cognitive) sufficiently represented the broad classification ofimpairments and health conditions that generally resulted in disability. Additionally, thework group concluded that it could meet an array of other policy and programmaticrequirements with three questions on difficulty with specific types of functional activities.Their questions intended to address people with limitations in performing the following:Activities of Daily Living, which generally include self-care type activities suchas bathing or dressing; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, which are activities oftenassociated with independent living such as going out alone to shop or visit a doctorsoffice; and, finally, working at a job or business. The work group’s consensus set ofquestions was put on the Census 2000 long form and on the ACS. (For further discussionof the research and analysis undertaken by this work group, see Adler et. al.)Page 14 of 17
  15. 15. (2) http://www.economist.com/node/18332928?story_id=18332928Disability payments(2) The elephant in the waiting-roomPoliticians are ignoring a big, dysfunctional programmeMar 10th 2011 | LAKE COUNTY, INDIANA | from the print editionIt only hurts when I workTHOMAS SCULLY has a busy law office in Lake County, Indiana. He mainly practices disability law,with good reason. Lake County is home to steel mills. Workers have aching backs and hands warped bymachinery. Mr Scully helps them win Social Security Disability Insurance (DI), which provides cash and,after two years, access to Medicare, government-subsidised health insurance meant mainly for the elderly.Page 15 of 17
  16. 16. DI is not supposed to be a safety net for the jobless. “I tell clients”, Mr Scully explains, “disabilityinsurance is not unemployment insurance.” But they should be forgiven for being confused.Politicians like to deride expensive programmes. DI may be the least discussed and most muddled. Theprogramme is severely strained. The number of awards has spiked in the downturn, rising 28% since 2007.This surge follows decades of growth. DI accounted for about 10% of Social Security spending in 1989 but18% by 2009. This is not because beneficiaries are bending any rules; the real problem is that the rules area mess.Congress created DI in 1956. Since then physical labour has become less common, while medicaltechnology has advanced. One might have thought that DI rolls would shrink, but the opposite hasoccurred. Even compared with the Social Security Administration’s other costly programme for thedisabled, DI is huge. Supplemental Security Income (SSI), which gives help to the very poor, doled out $43billion to adults and children in 2010, up 124% since 1990. DI gave $110 billion to disabled workers, upalmost 420%.The reasons for this are debated. States have an incentive to keep their welfare rolls low, so they may bepushing workers towards the federally funded SSI and DI programmes, argues Nancy Shor of the NationalOrganisation of Social Security Claimants’ Representatives, a lawyers’ group. But unlike SSI, DI is not asubstitute for welfare; DI requires beneficiaries to have worked for five of the past ten years.Ageing would seem another obvious explanation, as those aged 50-64 account for almost 60% of DIawards. But the rolls grew quickly even when the share of 50- to 64-year-olds was steady, according toDavid Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Mark Duggan of the University ofMaryland. Obesity does not seem to be the main cause either. Beneficiaries claiming problems such asdiabetes and heart disease comprised a sliver of the awards in 2009.A more likely culprit is the programme’s structure. Messrs Autor and Duggan show that DI awards havebecome more attractive to those struggling in the labour market. Those awards, meanwhile, have becomemore accessible. In 1984 Congress made it easier for DI applicants to claim mental illness andmusculoskeletal disorders such as back pain—both inherently subjective ailments. In 2009 these twoconditions accounted for 22% and 31% of DI awards, respectively, about double their share in 1981. Evenif an applicant does not meet DI’s basic medical requirements, he may eventually win payments for otherreasons. DI’s rules, for example, allow an older worker unlikely to retrain to get benefits instead. Persistentapplicants can seek the help of lawyers. Of those who appeal their case to a judge, almost 90% aresuccessful.Given DI’s design, it should come as little surprise that enrolment jumps during recessions. Till vonWachter of Columbia University offers three explanations. First, impaired workers may be among the firstto be sacked. After they are laid off, they may find that they qualify for DI, as is the case for many of MrScully’s clients. Second, DI’s criteria explicitly include economic factors, such as the ability to retrain.Third, those desperate for cash may use more subjective criteria, such as mental illness and “bad back”, totry to win benefits. Many will fail, but they can appeal.The Social Security Administration has tried to fix some of these problems. The “ticket to work”programme, for example, is intended to help DI and SSI beneficiaries get jobs. But as of November 2010,just 2.4% of those offered job help actually received it (let alone found work). A newer pilot alsoencourages those on the rolls to find jobs. Such programmes seemed doom to fail, trying to convincebeneficiaries that they can find work after they have spent years arguing otherwise. More effective, saysRichard Burkhauser of Cornell University and the conservative American Enterprise Institute, employersshould be given incentives to accommodate workers at the onset of their disability. A separate plan byMessrs Autor and Duggan, for the centre-left Hamilton Project, calls for all employers to offer disabilityinsurance.Page 16 of 17
  17. 17. A solution is needed, and soon. The DI trust fund is expected to dry up in 2018, 22 years before the trustfund for Social Security retirees does. Nevertheless, budget hawks have flown over the issue. BarackObama’s deficit panel said proposals to reform DI would be “critical” but were “beyond the scope of thiscommission.” Last year Paul Ryan, a Republican congressman, presented a bold plan for reformingentitlements. Of DI, the plan said simply: “disability benefits will see no change.”(3) HealthDay NewsMONDAY, Jan. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The economic cost of overweight and obesity is estimated at$300 billion per year in the United States and Canada, with 90 percent of the total cost attributed to theUnited States, according to a study published in December by the Society of Actuaries.Donald F. Behan, Ph.D., from the Georgia State University Center for Risk Management and InsuranceResearch in Atlanta, and colleagues reviewed almost 500 research articles on obesity and associatedmorbidity and mortality. The study examined the economic costs resulting from increased requirements formedical care, loss of economic productivity due to excess mortality, and disability.The investigators estimated the total economic cost of being overweight (body mass index [BMI] between25.0 and 29.9) and of obesity (BMI at or over 30). The main economic costs included excess medical care($127 billion), loss of productivity due to excess mortality ($49 billion), economic loss of productivity foractive workers due to disability ($43 billion), and loss of productivity caused by total disability ($72billion)."The total economic cost of overweight and obesity in the United States and Canada caused by medicalcosts, excess mortality, and disability is approximately $300 billion per year. The proportion of this totaldue to overweight is approximately $80 billion and approximately $200 billion is due to obesity," theauthors write.(4) Creating Public Value through Private/Public PartnershipsPage 17 of 17

×